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How to Learn Any Language

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How to Learn Any Language    
Quickly, Easily, Inexpensively, Enjoyably and On Your Own                                                                                              
by    
Barry Farber    
Founder of the Language Club/Nationally Syndicated Talk Show Host    
                                                   
To Bibi and Celia, for the pleasure of helping teach them  
their first language, followed by the pleasure of having them  
then teach me their second!    
                          
Contents         
Acknowledgements    
Introduction         
Part I: My Story    
A Life of Language Learning         
Part II: The System    
Do As I Now Say, Not As I Then Did    
Psych Up    
French or Tagalog: Choosing a Language    
Gathering Your Tools    
The Multiple Track Attack    
Hidden Moments    
Harry Lorayne』s Magic Memory Aid    
The Plunge    
Motivations    
Language Power to the People    
Back to Basics    
Last Words Before the Wedding         
Part III: Appendices    
The Language Club    
The Principal Languages of the World    
Farber』s Language Reviews    
                          
Acknowledgements                   
I want to thank my editor, Bruce Shostak, without whose skill and patience much of  
this book would have been intelligible only to others who』ve had a blinding passion for  
foreign languages since 1944. I further thank my publisher, Steven Schragis, for  
venturing into publishing territory heretofore officially listed as 「uninteresting」. Dr.  
Henry Urbanski, Founder and Head of the New Paltz Language Immersion Institute, was  
good enough to review key portions of the manuscript and offer toweringly helpful  
amendments. Dr. Urbanski』s associate, Dr. Hans Weber, was supremely helpful in  
safeguarding against error.    
I further wish to thank all my fellow language lovers from around the world who  
interrupted their conversations at practice parties of the Language Club to serve as  
willing guinea pigs for my questions and experimentations in their native languages.    
                                                   
How to Learn Any Language         
Introduction                   
This may be the most frequently told joke in the world – it』s repeated every day in almost  
every language:    
「What do you call a person who speaks two languages?」    
「Bilingual.」    
「What do you call a person who speaks three languages?」    
「Trilingual.」    
「What do you call a person who speaks four languages?」    
「Quadrilingual.」    
「What do you call a person who speaks only one language?」    
「An American!」    
With your help this book can wipe that smile off the world』s face.    
The reason Americans have been such notoriously poor language learners up to  
now is twofold:    
1. We』ve never really had to learn other peoples』 languages before, and  
2. Almost all foreign language instruction available to the average American has  
been until now (one hates to be cruel) worthless. 「I took two years of high school French  
and four more years in college and I couldn』t even order orange juice in Marseilles」 is  
more than a self effacing exaggeration. It』s a fact, a shameful, culturally impoverishing,  
economically dangerous, self defeating fact!      
Modern commerce and communications have erased reason 1.    
You and the method laid out in this book, working together, will erase reason 2.         
It started for me when I learned that the Norwegian word for 「squirrel」 was acorn.  
It may have been spelled ekorn, but it was pronounced acorn. Then I learned that  
「Mickey Mouse」 in Swedish is Mussie Pig. Again, the Swedish spelling varied, but so    
 
what? As delights like those continued to come my way, I realised I was being locked  
tighter and tighter into the happy pursuit of language love and language learning.    
My favourite music is the babble of strange tongues in the marketplace. No  
painting, no art, no photograph in the world can excite me as much as a printed page of  
text in a foreign language I can』t read – yet!    
I embraced foreign language study as a hobby as a teenager in 1944. When I was  
inducted into the army in 1952, I was tested and qualified for work in fourteen different  
languages. Since then I』ve expanded my knowledge of those languages and taken up  
others. Whether fluently or fragmentally, I can now express myself in twenty-five  
languages.    
That may sound like a boast, but it』s really a confession. Having spent so many  
years with no other hobby, I should today be speaking every one of those languages  
much better than I do. If you』re a beginner, you may be impressed to hear me order a  
meal in Chinese or discuss the Tito-Stalin split in Serbo-Croatian, but only I know how  
much time and effort I wasted over those years thinking I was doing the right thing to  
increase my command of those and other languages.    
This book, then, does not represent the tried and true formula I』ve been using since  
1944. It presents the tried and true formula I』d use if I could go back to 1944 and start all  
over again!         
Common sense tells us we can』t have dessert before we finish the meal; we can』t  
have a slim figure until we diet; we can』t have strong muscles until we exercise; we  
won』t have a fortune until we make it. So far common sense is right.    
Common sense also tells us, however, that we can』t enjoy communicating in a  
foreign language until we learn it. This means years of brain benumbing conjugations,  
declensions, idioms, exceptions, subjunctives, and irregular verbs. And here common  
sense is wrong, completely wrong. When it comes to learning foreign languages, we can  
start with the dessert and then use its sweetness to inspire us to back up and devour the  
main course.    
What six year old child ever heard of a conjugation? Wouldn』t you love to be able  
to converse in a foreign language as well as all the children of that tongue who』ve not yet  
heard of grammar? No, we』re not going to rise up as one throaty revolutionary mob,  
depose grammar, drag it out of the palace by the heels, and burn it in the main square.  
We』re just going to put grammar in its place. Up to now, grammar has been used by our  
language educators to anesthetise us against progress. If it』s grammar versus fun, we』re  
going to minimise grammar and maximise fun. We』re going to find more pleasant ways  
to absorb grammar.    
Unfortunately, there are a lot more 「self improvement」 books than there is self  
improvement. Too many books whose titles are heavy with promise turn out to be all hat  
and no cattle – not enough take home after you deduct the generalities and exhortations  
to 「focus」 and 「visualise」 your goals. Extracting usable advice from high promising  
books can be like trying to nail custard pies to the side of a barn.    
Mindful of that danger, I will not leave you with nothing but a pep talk. Follow the  
steps herein, and you will learn the language of your choice quickly, easily, inexpensively,  
enjoyably and on your own.    
 
And you』ll have fun en route, though not nearly as much fun as you』ll have once  
you get that language in working order and take it out to the firing range of the real  
world!              
The System         
The language learning system detailed in this book is the result of my own continuous,  
laborious trial and error beginning in 1944. That which worked was kept, that which  
failed was dropped, that which was kept was improved. Technology undreamed of when  
I started studying languages, such as the audiocasette and the tape player small enough to  
carry while walking or jogging, was instantly and eagerly incorporated.    
The system combines:    
.THE MULTIPLE TRACK ATTACK: Go to the language department of any bookstore  
and you』ll see language books, grammars, hardcover and paperback workbooks,  
readers, dictionaries, flash cards, and handsomely bound courses on cassette. Each  
one of those products sits there on the shelf and says, 「Hey, Bud. You want to  
learn this language? Here I am. Buy me!」 I say, buy them all, or at least one of  
each! You may feel like you』re taking four or five different courses in the same  
language simultaneously. That』s good. A marvellous synergistic energy sets you  
soaring when all those tools are set together in symphony.  
.HIDDEN MOMENTS: Dean Martin once chided a chorus girl, who was apathetically  
sipping her cocktail, by saying, 「I spill more than you drink!」 All of us 「spill」  
enough minutes every day to learn a whole new language a year! Just as the Dutch  
steal land from the sea, you will learn to steal language learning time, even from a  
life that seems completely filled or overflowing. What do you do, for example,  
while you』re waiting for an elevator, standing in line at the bank, waiting for the  
person you』re calling to answer the phone, holding the line, getting gas, waiting to  
be ushered from the waiting room into somebody』s office, waiting for your date to  
arrive, waiting for anything at any time?  
You will learn to mobilise these precious scraps of time you』ve never even been  
aware you』ve been wasting. Some of your most valuable study time will come in  
mini lessons of fifteen, ten, and even five seconds throughout your normal (though  
now usually fruitful) day.      
.HARRY LORAYNE』S MAGIC MEMORY AID: An ingenious memory system developed  
by memory master Harry Lorayne will help you glue a word to your recollection  
the instant you encounter it. What would you do right now if I gave you a hundred  
English words along with their foreign equivalents and told you to learn them?  
Chances are you would look at the first English word, then look at the foreign  
word, repeat it several times, then close your eyes and keep on repeating it, then  
cover up the foreign word, look only at the English and see if you could remember  
how to say it in the language you』re learning, then go on to the next word, then the  
next, and the next, and then go back to the first to see if you remembered it, and so  
on through the list.  
Harry Lorayne』s simple memory trick based on sound and association will make  
that rote attempt laughable. The words will take their place in your memory like          
 
ornaments securely hung on a Christmas tree, one right after the other all the way  
up to many times those hundred words.      
.THE PLUNGE: You will escape the textbook incubator early and leap straightaway,  
with almost no knowledge of the language, into that language』s 「real world」. A  
textbook in your target language, no matter how advanced, is not the real world.  
On the other hand, an advertisement in a foreign language magazine, no matter  
how elementary and easy to read, is the real world. Everything about you,  
conscious and subconscious, prefers real world to student world contact with the  
language.  
An actor knows the difference between rehearsal and opening night; the football  
player, between practice scrimmages and the kickoff in a crowded stadium. And  
you will know the difference between your lessons in the target language and the  
real world newspapers, magazines, novels, movies, radio, TV, and anything else  
you can find to throw yourself into at a stage your high school French teacher  
would have considered horrifyingly early!               
There you have it: The Multiple Track Attack, Hidden Moments, Harry Lorayne』s  
Magic Memory Aid, The Plunge. Visualise the target language as a huge piece of thin,  
dry paper. This system will strike a match underneath the middle of that paper, and your  
knowledge, like the flame, will eat its way unevenly but unerringly outward to the very  
ends.    
Just as food manufacturers like to label their products 「natural and organic」  
whenever they can get away with it, many language courses like to promise that you will  
learn 「the way a child learns.」    
Why bother? Why should you learn another language the way a child learned his  
first one? Why not learn as what you are – an adult with at least one language in hand,  
eager to use that advantage to learn the next language in less time than it took to learn the  
first?    
                                                        
P A R T O N E              
My Story   
                          
A Life of Language    
Learning                   
A brief 「language autobiography」 may help readers whose language learning and  
language loving careers began only a few moments ago with the opening of this book.    
My favourite word – in any language – is the English word foreign. I remember  
how it came to be my favourite word. At the age of four I attended a summer day camp.  
Royalty develops even among children that young. There were already a camp 「king」  
and a camp 「queen」, Arthur and Janet. I was sitting right beside Arthur on the bus one  
morning, and I remember feeling honoured. Arthur reached into his little bag, pulled out  
an envelope, and began to show Janet the most fascinating pieces of coloured paper I』d  
ever seen.    
「Look at these stamps, Janet,」 he said. 「They』re foreign!」 That word reverberated  
through my bone marrow. Foreign, I figured, must mean beautiful, magnetic, impressive  
– something only the finest people share with only the other finest people. From that  
moment forward, the mere mention of the word foreign has flooded me with fantasy.    
I thought everybody else felt the same, and I had a hard time realising they didn』t.  
When a schoolmate told me he turned down his parents』 offer of a trip to Europe for a  
trip out West instead, I thought he was crazy. When another told me he found local  
politics more interesting than world politics, I thought he was nuts. Most kids are bored  
with their parents』 friends who come to dinner. I was too, unless that friend happened to  
have been to a foreign country – any foreign country – in which case I cross examined  
him ruthlessly on every detail of his foreign visit.    
Once a visitor who』d been through my interrogation to the point of brain blur said  
to my mother upon leaving, 「What a kid! He was fascinated by every detail of every hour  
I ever spent in another country, and the only other place I』ve ever been is Canada!』         
How Latin Almost Ruined It         
Walking into Miss Leslie』s Latin class on the first day of ninth grade was the culmination  
of a lifelong dream. I could actually hear Roman background music in my mind. I didn』t    
 
understand how the other students could be anything less than enthusiastic about the  
prospect of beginning Latin. Electricity coursed through me as I opened the Latin book  
Miss Leslie gave us. I was finally studying a foreign language!    
The first day all we did was learn vocabulary. Miss Leslie wrote some Latin words  
on the blackboard, and we wrote them down in our notebooks. I showed early promise as  
the class whiz. I quickly mastered those new words, each then as precious as Arthur』s  
foreign stamps had been eleven years earlier. When Miss Leslie had us close our books  
and then asked 「Who remembers how to say 『farmer』 in Latin,」 I was the first to split the  
air with the cry of 「Agricola!」 I soaked up those foreign words like the Arabian desert  
soaks up spiled lemonade.    
What happened thereupon for a short time crippled, but then enriched, my life  
beyond measure.    
I was absent from school on day four. When I returned on day five, there were no  
more Latin words on the blackboard. In their place were words like nominative, genitive,  
dative, accusative. I didn』t know what those words meant and I didn』t like them. That  
「nominative-genitive」 whatever-it-was was keeping me from my feast, and I resented it  
like I resent the clergyman at the banquet whose invocation lasts too long.    
The more Miss Leslie talked about these grammatical terms, the more bored I got.  
Honeymooners would have more patience with a life insurance salesman who knocked  
on their motel door at midnight than I had with Latin grammar. I clearly remember  
believing languages were nothing but words. We have words. They have words. And all  
you have to do is learn their words for our words and you』ve got it made. Therefore all  
that 「ablative absolute」 stuff Miss Leslie was getting increasingly excited about was  
unneeded and, to me, unwanted.    
Miss Leslie, noting that I, her highly motivated superstar, was floundering with  
elementary Latin grammar, kindly offered to assign another student to tutor me on what  
I』d missed the day before, or even to sit down with me herself. I remember declining the  
offer. I remember deciding, with the logic of a frustrated fifteen year old, that grammar  
was just another of those barriers designed by grownups to keep kids from having too  
much fun. I decided to wait it out.    
I shut off my brain as the cascade of changing noun endings and mutating verb  
forms muscled out the joy of my beloved vocabulary words. I longed for the good old  
days of being the first in the class to know agricola. More and more that Miss Leslie said  
made less and less sense. I was trapped in a Bermuda Triangle. My aura of classroom  
celebrity disappeared, along with my self esteem, my motivation, and almost my  
affection for things foreign.    
I limped along, barely making passing grades; I only managed to pass thanks to the  
vocabulary section on every test. My knowledge of vocabulary plus some good  
grammatical guesswork and a little luck got me through Miss Leslie』s class with a low D.    
Some of the other students seemed to be enjoying my lameness in Latin, after my  
being the overpraised and preening star of the class for the first three days. To assuage  
the hurt, I got hold of a self study book in Chinese. By the last few weeks of school, it  
was apparent that there was no way I could make better than a weak D in Latin, but that  
was enough to pass. I hid my humiliation behind that outrageously foreign looking book  
with thick, black Chinese characters all over the cover. I buried all thoughts of Latin in  
sour grapes and sat there and studied Chinese instead!    
           
Chinese Sailors Don』t Speak Latin         
Forsaking Latin for Chinese was my own form of juvenile defiance. However, I have  
since used Chinese in some way almost every day. I confess to occasional curiosity as to  
what all those A students from Miss Leslie』s Latin class are doing these days with their  
Latin.    
During summer vacation we went to Miami Beach to visit my grandparents. On one  
trip, as Uncle Bill drove us from the train station in Miami to Miami Beach, we passed a  
large group of marching sailors. As we drew abreast of the last row I noticed that the  
sailor on the end was Chinese. Then I noticed that the sailor beside him was also Chinese.  
I blinked. The whole last row was Chinese. And the next whole row was Chinese too.    
The entire contingent of marching sailors was Chinese!    
I felt like a multimillion dollar lottery winner slowly realising he』d gotten all the  
right numbers. I had no idea there were Chinese sailors in Miami, but why not? It was  
during World War II, China was our ally, and Miami was a port. There they were,  
hundreds of native speakers of the language I was trying to learn.    
I couldn』t wait to fling myself into their midst sputtering my few phrases of Chinese  
at machine gun velocity. I didn』t know what adventures were awaiting my Latin  
classmates that summer, but I was confident none of them were about to approach an  
entire contingent of sailors who spoke Latin!    
When we got to my grandparents』 hotel, I gave them the quickest possible hug and  
kiss, ran out, took the jitney back over the causeway to Miami, and started asking  
strangers if they knew where the Chinese sailors were.    
Everybody knew the Chinese sailors were billeted in the old Hotel Alcazar on  
Biscayne Boulevard. After their training, I was told, they gathered in groups and strolled  
around Bayfront Park.    
I waited. Sure enough, in late afternoon the park filled with Chinese sailors. I  
picked a clump of them at random and waded on in, greeting them in phrases I』d been  
able to learn from the book my parents had bought me. I』d never heard Chinese spoken  
before. No records, tapes, or cassettes. I could hit them only with the Chinese a D student  
in Latin could assemble from an elementary self study book in Chinese conversation in  
Greensboro, North Carolina.    
It sounded extraplanetary to the Chinese sailors, but at least they understood enough  
to get the point that here was no Chinese American, here was no child of missionary  
parents who』d served in China. Here was essentially an American urchin hellbent on  
learning Chinese without any help.    
They decided to provide the help.    
You don』t have to win a war to get a hero』s welcome. The Chinese naval units  
stationed in Miami seemed suddenly to have two missions – to defeat the Japanese and to  
help me learn Chinese! A great side benefit to learning foreign languages is the love and  
respect you get from the native speakers when you set out to learn their language. You』re  
far from an annoying foreigner to them. They spring to you with joy and gratitude.    
The sailors adopted me as their mascot. We met every afternoon in Bayfront Park  
for my daily immersion in conversational Chinese. A young teenager surrounded by    
 
native speakers and eager to avenge a knockout by a language like Latin learns quickly.  
There was something eerie about my rapid progress. I couldn』t believe I was actually  
speaking Chinese with our military allies in the shadow of the American built destroyers  
on which they would return to fight in the Far East. If only Miss Leslie could see me  
now!    
Naturally my grandparents were disappointed that I didn』t spend much time with  
them, but their bitterness was more than assuaged when I bought gangs of my Chinese  
sailor friends over to Miami Beach and introduced them to my family. My grandparents  
had the pleasure of introducing me to their friends as 「my grandson, the interpreter for  
the Chinese navy.」    
I exchanged addresses and correspondence with my main Chinese mentor, Fan  
Tung-shi, for the next five years. Sadly, his letters stopped coming when the Chinese  
Communists completed their conquest of the Mainland. (He and I were joyously reunited  
exactly forty years later when a Taiwan newspaper interviewed me and asked me how I  
learned Chinese. One of Fan』s friends saw his name in the article.)    
That summer, in Will』s Bookstore on South Green Street back in Greensboro, I  
walked past the foreign language section and spotted a book entitled Hugo』s Italian  
Simplified. I opened it, and within ten or fifteen seconds the 「background music」 started  
again.         
Arrividerci, Latin         
Italian, I discovered, was Latin with all the difficulty removed. Much as a skilled chef  
fillets the whole skeleton out of a fish, some friendly folks somewhere had lifted all that  
grammar (at least, most of it) out of Latin and called the remainder Italian!    
There was no nominative-genitive-dative-accusative in Italian. Not a trace, except  
in a few pronouns which I knew I could easily take prisoner because we had the same  
thing in English (me is the accusative of I). Italian verbs did misbehave a little, but not to  
the psychedelic extent of Latin verbs. And Italian verbs were a lot easier to look at.    
I bought Hugo』s book and went through it like a hot knife through butter. I could  
have conversed in Italian within a month if there』d been anybody around who could have  
understood – a learning aid which the Greensboro of that day, alas, could not provide.    
I was clearly a beaten boxer on the comeback trail. Why was I all of a sudden doing  
so well in Italian after having done so poorly in Latin?    
Was it my almost abnormal motivation? No. I』d had that in Latin, too. Was it that  
Italian was a living language you could go someplace some day and actually speak,  
whereas Latin was something you could only hope to go on studying? That』s a little  
closer to the mark, but far from the real answer.    
My blitz through Italian, after my unsuccessful siege of Latin, owed much to the  
fact that in Italian I didn』t miss day four! I』m convinced that it was day four in ninth  
grade Latin that did me in. No other day』s absence would have derailed me. When I left  
on day three we were bathing in a warm sea of pleasant words. If only I』d been there on  
day four when Miss Leslie explained the importance of grammar, I might have felt a bit  
dampened, but I』d have put my head into the book, clapped my hands over my ears, and  
mastered it.    
 
After Italian I surged simultaneously into Spanish and French with self study books.  
Though by no means fluent in either Spanish or French by summer』s end, I had amassed  
an impressive payload of each. I was ready to stage my come from behind coup.    
Regulations in my high school demanded that a student complete two years of Latin  
with good grades before continuing with another language. After that, one could choose  
Spanish or French. I had completed only one year of Latin with poor grades, and I  
wanted to take both Spanish and French!    
I had not yet learned the apt Spanish proverb that tells us 「regulations are for your  
enemies.」 I learned the concept, however, by living it.    
Miss Mitchell was the sole foreign language authority of the high school. She  
taught Spanish and French. She was considered unbendable – in fact, unapproachable –  
in matters of regulation fudging. I didn』t know that on the first day as classes were  
forming. I』m glad I didn』t.    
I went to her classroom and asked if I might talk something over with her. I told her  
I was particularly interested in foreign languages, and even though I』d only had one year  
of Latin and didn』t do well in it at all, I』d really like to move into Spanish and French. If  
she could only see her way clear to let me, I』d appreciate it forever and try awfully hard.    
She asked if I had a transcript of my grades from Miss Leslie』s Latin class. No, I  
didn』t, I explained, but I had something more to the point. I』d bought books in Spanish  
and French over the summer and gotten a good head start. I hoped a demonstration of my  
zeal would win her favour.    
Like a tough agent softening sufficiently to let a persistent unknown comic do part  
of his routine, Miss Mitchell invited me to do my stuff.    
I conversed, I read, I wrote, I recited, I conjugated, I even sang – first in Spanish,  
then in French. Miss Mitchell gave no outward sign of emotion, but I knew the magic had  
worked.    
「I』ll have to talk it over with the principal,」 she said, 「but I don』t think there will be  
a problem. We』ve never had a case anything like this before. If I can get approval, which  
language, Spanish or French, would you like to take?」    
In a fit of negotiatory skill I wish would visit me more often, I said, 「Please, Miss  
Mitchell, let me take both!」    
She frowned, but then relented. I got to take both.    
From the ambitious boxer floored early in round one by Latin grammar, I was all of  
a sudden the heavyweight language champ of the whole high school!         
Ingrid Bergman Made Me Learn Norwegian         
I did well in high school Spanish and French. When you』ve pumped heavy iron, lifting a  
salad fork seems easy. When you』re thrown into a grammar as complex as Latin』s at the  
age of fourteen, just about any other language seems easy. I never quit thanking Spanish,  
French, German, Italian, Norwegian, Danish, Swedish, Romanian and Yiddish just for  
not being Latin. I』ve always been particularly grateful to Chinese and Indonesian for  
having nothing in their entire languages a Latin student would recognise as grammar.    
It was so enjoyable building my knowledge of Spanish, French, Italian and Chinese,  
I never thought of taking on any other languages. Then I saw an Ingrid Bergman movie  
and came out in a daze. I』d never imagined a woman could be that attractive. I went    
 
directly to the adjoining bookstore and told the clerk, 「I want a book in whatever  
language it is she speaks.」    
Miss Bergman』s native tongue, the clerk told me, was Swedish, and he bought forth  
a copy of Hugo』s Swedish Simplified. It cost two dollars and fifty cents. I only had two  
dollars with me.    
「Do you have anything similar – cheaper?」 I asked.    
He did indeed. He produced a volume entitled Hugo』s Norwegian Simplified for  
only one dollar and fifty cents.    
「Will she understand if I speak to her in this?」 I asked, pointing to the less  
expensive Norwegian text. The clerk assured me that yes, any American speaking  
Norwegian would be understood by any native Swede.    
He was right. A lifetime later, at age thirty, I wheedled an exclusive radio interview  
with Ingrid Bergman on the strength of my ability in her language. She was delighted  
when I told her the story. Or at least she was a nice enough person and a good enough  
actress to pretend.         
Rumours of Russian         
When I arrived at the University of North Carolina, I got my first real opportunity to  
speak the European languages I was learning with native speakers. Students at the  
university came from many different countries. The Cosmopolitan Club, a group of  
foreign students and Americans who wanted to meet one another, gathered every Sunday  
afternoon in the activities building. I felt like a bee flitting from blossom to blossom until  
it is too heavy with pollen to fly or even buzz.    
A rumour rippled across the campus in my senior year that seemed too good to be  
true. The university, it was whispered, was planning to start a class in Russian.    
Sure enough, the rumour was soon confirmed. It was a historic event. Not only was  
the course the first in Russian ever offered by the University of North Carolina (or  
possibly by any university in the South), it also represented the first time the university  
had offered what one student called a 「funny looking」 language of any kind (he meant  
languages that don』t use the Roman alphabet)!    
The enrollment requirements were stiff. First you had to have completed at least  
two years in a 「normal」 language (Spanish, French, Italian, Portugese) with good grades.  
I qualified and was accepted.    
For me the first day of Russian was a lot like the first day of school. I』d toyed with  
one funny looking language already (Chinese), but I knew Russian was a different kind  
of funny looking. Would I conquer it, as I had Spanish and Norwegian, or would Russian  
swallow me whole, as Latin had?    
There were forty-five of us in that Russian class thinking varying versions of the  
same thing when the teacher, a rangy Alabaman named 「Tiger」 Titus, entered the room.  
After a formal 「Good morning」 he went straight to the front of the room and wrote the  
Russian (Cyrillic) alphabet on the blackboard.    
You could feel the group』s spirit sink notch by notch as each of Russian』s 「funny  
looking」 letters appeared. Students were allowed under university rules to abandon a  
course and get themselves into another as long as they did it within three days after the  
beginning of the term. We had defections from Russian class in mid-alphabet. By the    
 
time Tiger Titus turned around to face us, he had fewer students than had entered the  
room.    
「My soul!」 exclaimed one of the deserters when I caught up with him at the  
cafeteria later that day. 「I』ve never seen anything like that Russian alphabet before in my  
life. Why, they』ve got v』s that look like b』s, n』s that look like h』s, u』s that look like y』s,  
r』s that look like p』s, and p』s that look like sawed off goal posts. They got a backwards n  
that』s really an e and an x that sounds like you』re gagging on a bone. They got a vowel  
that looks like the number sixty-one, a consonant that looks like a butterfly with its wings  
all the way out, and damned if they don』t even have a B-flat!」    
The next day there were no longer forty-five members of the university』s first  
Russian class. There were five.    
I was one of the intrepid who hung in.         
A Lucky Bounce to the Balkans         
Writer/columnist Robert Ruark, a talented North Carolinian and drinking buddy of Ava  
Gardner, once wrote boastfully about a college weekend that began someplace like  
Philadelphia and got out of hand and wound up in Montreal. I topped him. I went to a  
college football game right outside Washington, D.C., one weekend and wound up in  
Yugoslavia for six weeks!    
The previous summer I』d been named a delegate from the university to the national  
convention of the National Student Association. I came back as chairman for the  
Virginia-Carolinas region of NSA. In October I was in College Park, Maryland, for the  
Carolina-Maryland game. At half time, at the hot dog stand, who should be reaching for  
the same mustard squirter as I but National NSA president, Bill Dentzer.    
「Who can believe this?」 he said. 「We』ve been looking for you for three days!」    
I explained it was our big senior out of town football weekend and College Park,  
Maryland was a long way from Chapel Hill, North Carolina, and there was a lot going on  
and I was sorry he couldn』t reach me. 「Why were you looking for me?」 I asked.    
「We wanted you to go represent us in Yugoslavia,」 he said. I told him I』d love to.    
「It』s too late now,」 he said. 「The plane leaves Monday from New York, and it』s  
already Saturday afternoon and the State Department』s closed, so there』s no way to get  
you a passport…」    
「Bill,」 I interrupted, 「I have a passport. I can easily get back to Chapel Hill and  
pick it up in time to fly from New York on Monday.」    
By Wednesday I was attending sessions of a spirited Tito propaganda fiesta called  
the Zagreb Peace Conference and enjoying my first immersion in a language the mere  
mention of which impresses people even more than Chinese: Serbo-Croatian!    
To my delight, I understood entire phrases from it from my university Russian. I  
became aware of 「families」 of foreign languages, something that doesn』t occur  
automatically to Americans because English doesn』t resemble its cousins very closely.  
It』s something of a black sheep in the Germanic language family. They say the closest  
language to English is Dutch. Dutch is about as close to English as Betelgeuse is to  
Baltimore!    
I』d noticed the summer before that Norwegian is usefully close to Swedish and  
Danish. Serbo-Croatian sounded to me like a jazzier, more 「fun」 kind of Russian. They    
 
use the Roman alphabet in western Yugoslavia, Croatia, and Slovenia, and in Serbia to  
the east they use the Cyrillic alphabet, with even more interesting letters in it than  
Russian uses.    
Some of the mystique I』d always imputed to multilingual people began to fade. If  
you meet somebody who speaks, say, ten languages, your instinct is to be impressed to  
the tune of ten languages worth. If, however, you later learn that six of those languages  
are Russian, Czech, Slovak, Serbo-Croatian, Polish and Ukrianian – I』m not suggesting  
that you dismiss him as illiterate, but you ought to be aware that he got six of those  
languages for the price of about two and three fourths! They』re all members of the Slavic  
family.    
The Yugoslav university students, my hosts, sent me back home aboard a Yugoslav  
ship, leaving me sixteen days with nothing to do but practice Serbo-Croatian with the  
other passengers. When I got back to school after a solid eight weeks』 absence, I wasn』t  
even behind in my German. German is widely spoken in central Europe and I』d spoken it  
widely enough during the adventure to float almost even with the class.         
Exotics – Hard and Easy         
Expertise is a narcotic. As knowledge grows, it throws off pleasure to its possessor, much  
like an interest bearing account throws off money. A pathologist who can instantly spot  
the difference between normal and abnormal X-rays grows incapable of believing that  
there are those of us who can』t. I find it hard to believe there are Americans who can』t  
even tell the difference between printed pages of Spanish and French or of Polish,  
Danish, or anything else written in the Roman alphabet. Too bad. If you can』t distinguish  
the easier languages from the harder ones, you miss the higher joys of confronting your  
first samples of written Finnish.    
Finland has been called the only beautiful country in the world where the language  
is the major tourist attraction. It』s utterly unfamiliar to you no matter where you come  
from, unless you happen to come from Estonia, in which case Finnish is only half  
unfamiliar to you. There』s always a general knowledge heavyweight around who says,  
「Wait a minute. Finnish is related to Hungarian too!」    
Oh, yeah! True, Finnish, Hungarian and Estonian are indeed all members of the  
Finno-Ugric language family, but try to find more than six words even remotely similar  
in each. As you learn more and more about foreign languages, you』re able to laugh at  
more and more jokes about languages. No Las Vegas comic will even knock socks off, or  
even loosen them, by standing up and saying, 「You know, Finnish and Hungarian are  
cousin languages, but Finnish took all the vowels!」 Look at the two languages side by  
side, however, and you』ll grudgingly accord at least minor wit status to whoever thought  
that one up.    
You may have experienced the difficulties of tackling Latin and Russian with their  
half dozen or so noun cases. Finnish has fifteen noun cases in the singular and sixteen in  
the plural! Every word in the entire language is accented on the first syllable, which gives  
Finnish something of the sounds of a pneumatic jackhammer breaking up a sidewalk.    
I covered the Olympic Games in Helsinki but wisely decided not to try to learn  
Finnish. It was the wisdom of the young boxer who』s eager to get in there with the champ    
 
and trade punches, but who nonetheless summons up the cool to decline and wait until  
he』s more prepared. I found a much softer opponent on the ship back to the United States.    
A summer tradition that vanished after the 1950』s with far too little poetic  
lamentation was the 「student ship to Europe.」 They were almost always Dutch ships  
offering unbelievably low fares, hearty food, cramped but clean accommodations, cheap  
beer, and always a bearded guitar player who drew the crowd back to the ship』s fantail  
after dinner and led the kids of ten or twelve nations in throaty renditions of 「I』ve Been  
Working on the Railroad.」 The singing, the flirting, the joy of heading over or heading  
home, and especially the learning of all the other countries』 「Railroads」 in all the other  
languages made the summer student ship a delight unimaginable to today』s jet lagged  
young Dutch airmen about my age. They were all headed for the United States to take  
their jet fighter training at various American air bases, and we became old friends at  
once. There seemed to be dozens (I later realised hundreds) of Indonesian servants on  
board. After four hundred years of Dutch rule, Indonesia had won its independence from  
Holland only four years earlier. The thousands of Indonesians who chose to remain loyal  
to Holland had to go to Holland, and that meant that virtually the entire Dutch service  
class was Indonesian.    
I was sitting on the deck talking to one of the Dutch pilots, Hans van Haastert. He  
called one of the Indonesians over and said something to him in fluent Indonesian. My  
romance with Dutch would begin (in a very unusual way) a few years later, but my  
romance with Indonesian was born in the lightning and thunder of Hans ordering a beer  
from that deck chair.    
If I had never been drawn to foreign languages earlier, that moment alone would  
have done it. To me at that time, it was the white suited bwana speaking something pure  
「jungle」 to one of his water carriers in any one of a hundred and eighteen safari movies  
I』d seen. It was Humphrey Bogart melting a glamourous woman』s kneecaps with a burst  
of bush talk she had no idea he even knew.    
「Where did you learn that?」 I asked. It turned out that Hans, like many of his  
Dutch confreres, had been born in Java of mixed parents. His Indonesian was just as good  
as his Dutch. 「Will you teach me some?」 I asked.    
For the next eight days, until we were interrupted by the New York City skyline,  
Hans patiently taught me the Indonesian language. When we parted, I was able to  
converse with the Indonesian crewmen, just as Hans had that first day on deck. Lest this  
come across as a boast, let me hasten to point out that Indonesian is the easiest language  
in the world – no hedging, no 「almost」, no 「among the easiest」. In my experience,  
Indonesian is the easiest. The grammar is minimal, regular, and simple. Once I began to  
learn it, Indonesian didn』t seem 「jungle」 anymore. The Indonesians obligingly use the  
Roman alphabet, and they get along with fewer letters of it than we do. And their tongue  
has an instant charm. The Indonesian word for 「sun」, mata hari (the famous female spy  
was known as the 「sun」 of Asia) literally means 「eye of the day」. When they make a  
singular noun plural in Indonesia, they merely say it twice. 「Man,」 for example, is orang.  
「Men」 is orang orang. And when they write it, they just write one orang and put a 2 after  
it, like an exponent in algebra (Orang 2). Orang hutan, the ape name pronounced by  
many Americans as if it were 「orang-u-tang,」 is an Indonesian term meaning 「man of the  
forest.」         
 
My Toughest Opponent         
For the next four years I avoided taking up any new languages. I had nothing against any  
of them (except one). It was just that there were too many gaps in the tongues I』d already  
entertained and I wanted to plug them up.    
The language I had something against was Hungarian. Before a summer weekend  
with army buddies in Rehoboth Beach, Delaware, I went to the post library and checked  
out an army phrase book in Hungarian to look at over the weekend. The introduction  
bluntly warned, 「Hungarian is perhaps the hardest language in the world, and it is spoken  
by only about ten million people.」 I resolved I』d never get any closer to it.    
Hungarian was the next language I studied.    
When Hungary rebelled against Soviet oppression in 1956, I was invited by the  
U.S. Air Force to join a team of reporters covering Operation Safe Haven, the airlift of all  
Hungarian refugees who were to receive asylum in the United States. That was far from  
enough to make me want to study Hungarian – yet.    
Every child is treated to fantasies like Buck Rogers and his invincible ray gun,  
Superman, Batman, or, in my case, Jack Armstrong and his 「mystery eye」, a power  
imparted to him by a friendly Hindu who, merely by concentrating and holding his palms  
straight out, could stop every oncoming object from a fist to a bullet to a bull to an  
express train. By this time I began to note that similar powers – offensive and defensive –  
could unexpectedly and delightfully accompany the mastery of languages.         
No Iron Curtains for Language         
Many reporters got to the Hungarian border with Austria during the outpouring of  
refugees that followed the Soviet oppression of the Hungarian freedom fighters. They  
went to the Red Cross shelters on the Austrian side, interviewed some refugees and relief  
workers, and went home. I was invited to join a secret team of volunteer international  
「commandos」 who actually slipped into Hungary by night to ferry refugees across the  
border canal on a rubber raft.    
The centre of the refugee operation was the Austrian border village of Andau. I  
asked a local policeman in German where the refugee headquarters was. It was Christmas  
night. It was dark. It was cold. There were no tour bus operators on the streets hawking  
tickets to the Hungarian border. He told me to go to Pieck』s Inn. At Pieck』s Inn the  
bartender said, 「Room nineteen.」 The fact that I was getting all this in German without  
looking around for somebody who spoke English was a convenience, but that』s not what  
I mean by the power of another language. That came next.    
I went upstairs to room nineteen and knocked on the door. 「Who』s there?」 shouted  
a voice in interestingly accented English.    
「I』m an American newspaper reporter,」 I yelled back. 「I understand you might help  
me get to the Hungarian border.」    
He opened the door cussing. 「I』ll never take another American to the border with us  
again,」 he said before the door even opened. 「No more Americans! One of you bastards  
damned near got us all captured night before last.」    
He turned out to be a pleasant looking young man with blonde hair. When I  
knocked, he was busy adjusting heavy duty combat boots. He continued his tirade as we    
 
faced each other. 「That American knew damned good and well that flashlights,  
flashbulbs, even matches were forbidden.」 He went on in rougher language than I』ll here  
repeat to tell how an American with a camera broke his promise and popped off a  
flashbulb while a raft load of refugees was in the middle of the canal, causing the  
refugees and the rescuers on both sides of the canal to scatter. That burst of light, of  
course, let the Communists know exactly where the escape operation was taking place.  
He described in valiant but not native English exactly how much ice would have to form  
around the shell of hell before any other American reporter or any reporter of any kind  
would ever be invited to join the operation again.    
As he railed on, I noticed a Norwegian flag tacked to the wall behind him. 「Snakker  
De norsk?」 I asked (「Do you speak Norwegian?」).    
He stopped, said nothing for a few seconds. Then, like a Hollywood comic of the  
1940』s pulling an absurd reversal, he said, 「You』ve got big feet, but there』s a pair of  
boots on the other side of the bed that might fit you. Try 『em on!」    
All night long we stood there waiting for the shadows to tell us that another group  
of refugees had arrived on the far bank of the canal. Then we』d push the raft into the  
water and play out the rope as our two boatmen paddled across. One would get out and  
help four or five Hungarians into the raft. When the raft was loaded, the boatman still in  
the raft would tug on the rope and we』d pull it back over. Then the lone boatman would  
paddle over again and repeat the process until all the refugees were on the Austrian side.  
The second boatman came back with the last load.    
We had to wait at least an hour to an hour and a half between refugee clusters. I was  
the coldest I』d ever been in my life, and there was no place to huddle behind or curl up  
inside. All we could do was stand there and wait. Light wasn』t the only thing prohibited.  
So was talk. Normal speech travels surprisingly far over frozen flatland, and it was  
important not to betray our position to the Communist patrols. We were only allowed to  
whisper softly to the person immediately ahead of us on the rope and the person  
immediately behind.    
I tried to remember what day it was. It was Thursday. It had only been the previous  
Saturday night when I』d taken a Norwegian girl, Meta Heiberg, from Woman』s College  
to the Carolina Theatre in Greensboro, North Carolina, where we saw newsreels of  
almost the very spot where I was now standing. When the screen showed Hungarian  
refugees pouring into Austria, Meta had said, 「My sister Karen』s over there somewhere  
helping those people.」 That was all.    
The next day I got the call inviting me to fly over with the air force. On Monday I  
flew. And here I was, freezing and waiting and marvelling at the courage of the boatmen  
who voluntarily put themselves into jeopardy every time they crossed to the other side of  
the canal.    
Eventually I decided to avail myself of whispering rights. The figure in front of me  
was so roundly bundled against the cold I couldn』t tell if it was male or female. I leaned  
forward and said, 「My name is Barry Farber and I』m from America.」    
A woman』s voice replied, 「My name is Karen Heiberg and I』m from Norway.」    
The cold, the power of the coincidence, and the tension of the border all combined  
to keep me from maximising that opportunity. All I managed to do was flatfootedly utter  
the obvious: 「I took your sister Meta to the Carolina Theatre in Greensboro, North  
Carolina, five nights ago.」    
 
The effect on Karen was powerful. I can』t complain, but I wish I』d been quick  
enough to add, 「She sent me over here to find out why you never write Uncle Olaf!」         
How I Married Hungarian         
You don』t launch into the study of a new language casually, but it』s not quite as solemn a  
decision as an American man proposing to his girlfriend after an evening of wine and  
light jazz. It is, however, something like an Ottoman sultan deciding to take on another  
wife. It really is like a marriage. Something in you actually says, 「I do!」 and you decide  
to give it time and commitment that would ordinarily be invested elsewhere.    
My pledge never to try to learn Hungarian was shattered by Hungarian heroism,  
Soviet tanks, and my agreeing to help Hungarian refugees resettle in Greensboro. I  
wasn』t the only journalist who stayed on that story long after history moved on. Every  
journalist I know who got involved in any part of the Hungarian Revolution became  
attached to it.    
I started in Munich in the transit refugee camp for those fleeing Hungarians who  
were destined to go to America. I buzzed from one refugee to another like a bee to  
blossoms, drawing as many words and phrases as I could from each and writing them  
down.    
The U.S. Air Force gave its Luitpol barracks over to the Hungarians, who promptly  
plastered their own signs right on top of the English signs on all the doors. The door that  
once said 「Doctor」 suddenly said 「Orvos.」 The door that once said 「Clothing」 suddenly  
said 「Ruha.」 And so on. It was easy to tell who among the Americans and Germans at  
Luitpol were genuine language lovers. They were the ones who were not annoyed.    
The Hungarian relabelling of everything at Luitpol actually gave me my most  
explosive language learning thrill. When I went searching for a men』s room, I found  
myself for the first time in my life not knowing where to go. You don』t need Charles  
Berlitz to take you by the hand to the right one when the doors read 「Mesdames」 and  
「Messieurs,」 「Damen」 and 「Herren,」 「Se.oras」 and 「Se.ores,」 or even the rural  
Norwegain 「Kvinnor」 and 「Menn.」    
No such luck prevailed at Luitpol. The two doors were labelled 「N..k」 and  
「Ferfiak.」 I looked at those two words, trying not to let my language lover』s enthusiasm  
distract from the pragmatic need to decipher which one was which relatively soon.    
My thinking went like this. The k at the end of both words probably just made them  
plural. That left N.. and Ferfia, or possibly Ferfi. Something came to me. I remembered  
reading that Hungarian was not originally a European language. It had been in Asia. The  
Chinese word for 「woman」, 「lady」, or anything female was n. – not no and not nu, but  
that precise umlaut sound that two dots over anything foreign almost always represents.  
(I lose patience with language textbooks that spend a page and a half telling you to purse  
your lips as though you』re going to say oo as in 「rude」 and then tell you instead to say ee  
as in 「tree.」 If you simply say the e sound in 「nervous」 or 「Gertrude,」 you』ll be close  
enough.    
Following that hunch I entered the door marked 「F.rfiak.」 The joy that came next  
should arise in tabernacles, not men』s rooms. To my satisfaction and relief I walked in  
and found five or six other ferfiak inside!    
 
Back in America I went looking for some books and records (there were no cassette  
tapes in those days) to help me in Hungarian. There were none. Communist rule has so  
completely cut Hungary off from the West that when you went looking for a Hungarian  
book, the shelves of even the biggest bookstores leapfrogged Hungarian, jumping right  
from Hebrew to Indonesian. There was one Hungarian-English phrase book published by  
a New York Hungarian delicatessen and general store named Paprikas Weiss. To  
accommodate the wave of Hungarian immigrants who had come to America in the  
1930』s, they had published their own little phrase book, which was distinguished by its  
utter failure to offer a single phrase of any practical use whatsoever to those of us  
working with the refugees. It was loaded with sentences like Almomban egy bet..r..vel  
viaskodtom,」 which means, 「In my dream I had a fight with a burglar」!    
Finally, like supplies that lag far behind the need for them in wartime, some decent  
English-Hungarian/Hungarian-English dictionaries arrived – no grammar books yet, just  
dictionaries. An explorer named Vilhjalmur Stefansson went to Greenland one time and  
proved you could live for eighteen months on nothing but meat. I proved it was possible,  
with nothing but that dictionary, to resettle half a dozen Hungarian refugees who spoke  
no English at all in Greensboro, North Carolina, to care for all their needs, and have a  
good deal of fun without one single bit of grammar!    
Hungarian has one of the most complex grammars in the world, but grammar is like  
classical music and good table manners. It』s perfectly possible to live without either if  
you』re willing to shock strangers, scare children, and be viewed by the world as a  
rampaging boor. We had no choice. Hungarians had to be talked to about homes, jobs,  
training, money, driver』s licenses, and the education of their children.    
「Tomorrow we』ll go to the butcher』s,」 for instance, had to do without the thirty- 
nine grammatical inflections a Hungarian sentence of that length would properly entail.  
We did it with nothing but the translation of essential words: 「Tomorrow go meat  
fellow.」 「A charitable woman is coming by to help you with your furniture needs」  
became 「Nice lady come soon give tables chairs.」    
I learned Hungarian fluently – and badly. Many years later I decided to return to  
Hungarian and learn it properly and grammatically. It』s a little like being back in Latin  
class, but this time I have a much better attitude.         
New Friends         
For the next thirty-five years I stood my ground and resisted taking up any new language.  
The languages I』d studied up to that point included Spanish, French, Italian, German,  
Portugese, Dutch, Norwegian, Danish, Swedish, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, Chinese  
(Mandarin dialect), Indonesian, Hungarian, Finnish, Yiddish and Hebrew. I happily  
applied myself to building competence in those languages and turning a deaf ear to all  
others.    
It was tempting to tackle Greek; so many Greeks I could have practiced with were  
popping up in my daily travels, but I clung to my policy of 「No more languages, thank  
you!」 That policy was misguided; in fact, swine headed. I was like the waiter standing  
there with arms folded who gets asked by a diner if he knows what time it is and  
brusquely replies 「Sorry. That』s not my table!」    
 
I could have easily and profitably picked up a few words and phrases every time I  
went to the Greek coffee shop and in the process learned another major language. But I  
didn』t. In the 1980』s immigrants to New York, where I lived, began to pour in from  
unaccustomed corners of the world, adding languages like Hindi, Urdu, Punjabi, Farsi,  
Bengali, Pashtu, Twi, Fanti, Wollof, Albanian, and Dagumbi to our already rich  
inventory of Spanish, Chinese, Italian, Yiddish, Portugese, Greek, Polish, and Hebrew. I  
abandoned the policy. Now I want to learn them all – not completely, just enough to  
delight the heart of an Indian or African cab driver who never before in his entire life met  
an American who tried to learn his language.    
                                                             
P A R T T W O              
The System    
                          
Do as I Now Say,    
Not as I Then Did                   
A wise man once said, 「I wish I had all the time I』ve ever wasted, so I could waste it all  
over again.」 Others may look at me and see someone who can, indeed, carry on a  
creditable conversation in about eighteen languages. I』m the only one who knows how  
much of my language learning time has been wasted, how little I』ve got to show for all  
those years of study, considering the huge hunks of time I』ve put into it. In fact, I feel  
like one of those hardened convicts who』s occasionally let out of jail under armed guard  
to lecture the sophomore class on the importance of going straight.    
If I had to do it all over again, I wouldn』t do it at all the way I did then. I』d do it the  
way I』m doing it now, the way I will detail in this book. It』s the way I』ve finally grown  
into and the way I hope you will proceed in order to get the absolute most out of your  
language learning dollar and your language learning minute.    
Here are some of the myths I held dear in the years when I thought I knew how to  
study languages, myths I now want to trample before you get the slightest bit seduced by  
them.         
I』ll put on my language cassettes while I work around the house and learn the  
language as easily as I learn the lyrics to popular songs.    
Great image. It just doesn』t work. You can』t just push a button and let the language  
you want to learn roll over you. Expecting to learn a language by laid back listening is  
like expecting to build a magnificent body by going to the gym, sitting in the steam room,  
chugging a glass of carrot juice, and then bragging about your 「workout!」    
You』re going to have to study the material on that cassette, capture every word,  
learn it, review it, master it, and then check challenge yourself after every piece of  
English. (We』ll consider a 「piece」 to be whatever the speaker on the cassette says in  
English before you hear the target language. It may be a word, a phrase, a whole  
sentence.)    
Abandon all images of language learning that resemble lying on a tropical beach  
and letting the warm surf splash over you. Pretend, instead, as you listen to your cassette,    
 
that you』re a contestant on a TV game show. After each piece of English, ask yourself,  
「For one thousand dollars now, quick, how do I say that in the language I』m trying to  
learn?」         
Since I』m not in school anymore, time isn』t important. I』ll take my time, skip a day,  
skip two days; the language will still be there when I get back to it.    
Spoken like a true linguaphony. A language has a lot in common with a military  
foe. Don』t let it rest. Don』t let it regroup and devise fresh ways to foil your attack. Keep  
up the rhythm of your offensive. Keep your momentum going. (This is only an  
illustration of tactics, of course; no language is an enemy.) A programme that features  
disciplined effort will convince you that you』re serious and generate fresh inspiration and  
energy.         
The chapter I』m studying now is hard and probably not too important. I』ll skip it  
and get back to it later on.    
That』s a giant killer. The declension of the numbers in Russian. The subjunctive in  
the Romance languages. The double infinitive in German. The enclitics in Serbo- 
Croatian. The noun cases in Finnish. Almost every language has formidable mountains to  
climb. Don』t walk around them. Climb them! Take one step at a time. Just be careful  
never to surrender to the temptation to beg off the hard stuff and learn only those parts of  
the language you find congenial.    
It will seem masochistic, but I want you to learn the names of the letters of the  
alphabet in your target language and the grammatical terms too, so that when you ask a  
native how a certain word is spelled, you can bandy the letters back and forth in the  
language. When you ask a native for the past tense of this verb or the negative plural of  
that noun, do your asking in the target language.         
I』m never going to pose as a native speaker of their language, and I』d never be able  
to pull it off even if I tried, so why bother to develop the right accent?    
Nobody is arrested for indecent exposure just because he dresses poorly. On the  
other hand, a person unconcerned about dress will never impress us with his appearance.  
It』s the same with the proper accent. As long as you』re going to go to the trouble of  
learning a language, why not try – at very little extra cost – to mimic the genuine accent.    
A poor accent will still get you what you want. A good accent will get you much  
more.    
If you can put on a foreign accent to tell ethnic jokes, you can put one on when you  
speak another language. If you think you can』t, try! A lot of Americans believe they』re  
unable to capture a foreign accent when subconsciously they』re merely reluctant to try.  
We』re all taught that it』s rude to make fun of foreigners. That childhood etiquette is  
hereby countermanded. 「Make fun」 of the foreigner』s accent as effectively as you can as  
you learn his language.    
Your 「infancy」 in a foreign language is spent learning to grope with incomplete  
phrases made up of incorrect words to mash your meaning across. 「Babyhood」 comes  
when some of the phrases are complete and more of the words are correct.    
 
「Childhood」 arrives when you can deal rather fluently with concepts involving  
bread, bed, buttons, and buses, even though you can』t yet discuss glassblowing in  
Renaissance Estonia.    
「Adulthood」 is being able to discuss absolutely anything, but with a pronounced  
American accent. With 「maturity」 you acquire a creditable accent in the language. You』ll  
know you』ve achieved maturity when you become annoyed at other Americans you hear  
plodding through the language with no effort to 「foreignise」 their accent to approximate  
the correct one.    
Be content with partial victories. I rejoiced the moment I learned I could speak  
Swedish well enough to convince a Norwegian I was a Finn. I celebrated when I realised  
I could speak Serbo-Croatian well enough to convince an Italian I was a Czech!         
There will come a moment when I will cross a border and earn the right to say,  
「Yes, I speak your language」!    
There』s no such border. Learning a language is a process of encroachment into the  
unknown. When can you say you 「speak a language」? The famous ophthalmologist Dr.  
Peter Halberg of New York refuses to consider that he speaks a language unless and until  
he can conduct a medical lecture in the language and then take hostile questioning from  
his peers. By his standards, he only speaks five languages!    
My standards are less exacting. I』ll confess to 「speaking a language」 if, after  
engaging in deep conversation with a charming woman from a country whose language  
I』m studying, I have difficulty the next morning recalling which language it was we were  
speaking.    
The Language Club, about which I will say more later, has a valuable guideline.  
When anybody asks a Language Clubber, 「How many languages do you speak?」 he  
gives the only safe answer, 「One. I speak my native language.」 He lets a breath go by to  
let that 「one」 sink in, after which he may then add, 「However, I am a student of…」 and  
mentions as many languages as he likes.    
To the question, 「Do you speak such and such a language?」 the all class response is  
a James Bond smile and three words: 「Yes, a little.」 It』s much better to let people  
gradually realise that your 「little」 is really quite a bit than to have them realise that your  
「Yes, I speak such and such」 is a fraud.    
Say you』ve been studying Indonesian, far from a commonplace language, and to  
your amazement (and delight) one of the other guests for dinner is from Indonesia.  
Repress the instinct to yelp at your good fortune. Act at first as though you know nothing  
of Indonesian. Don』t even say 「Pleased to meet you」 in Indonesian. There will be time.  
At the right point, much later in the proceedings, you』ll have the opening to remark,  
「That』s what the merchants of Djakarta would call…」 and then let go your best burst of  
wit – in Indonesian.    
For you to actually speak Indonesian and allow so much time to elapse before  
claiming your applause is downright noble. Beware flying socks when you lean over to  
your new Indonesian friend and, lowering your voice so as not to appear to be calling  
attention to yourself, finally unleash your evening』s first volley of Indonesian.    
                          
Psych Up              
Americans have grown up believing learning languages is hard. It is not hard! It merely  
seems hard because language instruction in American schools and colleges has until  
lately been so exasperatingly dull and unrewarding.    
Grammar, I again protest, is usually presented in American classrooms as a kind of  
obstacle course designed to leave you gasping face down on the Astroturf somewhere  
between the pluperfect and the subjunctive. Grammar can do that to you if you insist on  
attacking it the old way: frontally, rule by rule, exception by exception, with no fun en  
route and never feeling the joy of progress.    
You』re going to learn grammar, all right, but the conquest will never give you pain.  
You will waft through the thickest walls of grammar like a cartoon ghost and continue  
your journey onward through the language. Every time you look backward that wall will  
be lower, thinner, full of increasingly wider openings, and eventually it will disappear  
entirely. Contrary to centuries of American superstition, you don』t have to conquer the  
grammar to possess the language. Conquer the language and you』ll possess the grammar!    
I』ve long entertained the fantasy of putting the old orthodox grammarians on trial  
for war crimes, the specific charge being assassination of the fun that flows from gaining  
command of another language. Their defense will predictably be 「Bah, humbug. You  
can』t immerse, converse, rehearse, or even play around with a foreign language without a  
good foundation in the grammar!」    
They』re right in insisting on the importance of grammar, but who says you』ve got to  
have it first, as some kind of brutal initiation? Where is it written that you must wrap  
cold, wet blankets of grammar around your eagerness to learn another language until it  
disappears? (Your eagerness, that is. The grammar never does.)    
A six year old in America doesn』t know what the word grammar means, but he  
knows to say 「he does」 and not 「he do.」 How does he know? 「He do」 just doesn』t sound  
right.    
That』s all! And that』s enough!    
Years later he will be taught that the English verb in the third person singular of the  
present tense adds an s or es to the infinitive form, which serves uninflected for all other  
persons singular and plural.    
 
You don』t have to know grammar to obey grammar. If you obey grammar from the  
outset, when you turn around later and learn why you should say things the way you』re  
already saying them, each grammatical rule will then become not an instrument of  
abstract torture disconnected from anything you』ve experienced but rather an old friend  
who now wants you to have his home address and private phone number.    
When the grammatical rule come first, followed by its pitiful two or three examples  
in the textbook, it seems to the student like an artificially confected bit of perversity  
rolled down upon his head like a boulder.    
When the grammatical rule comes after you』ve got some of the language in you, it  
becomes a gift flashlight that makes you smile and say, 「Now I understand why they say  
it that way!」    
So, you are right now and forevermore warned not to bridle or to question, 「Why is  
the word for 『go』 in this French sentence vais and in the very next sentence aller?」  
Simply embrace the faith that both sentences are correct and learn them like Catholic  
children in strict parochial schools learn the Baltimore Catechism.    
The more shaken you become by grammatical storms, the more tightly you must  
hug the faith. I vow it will all become clear. And in this world. You won』t have to wait  
for any other.    
It』s easy to reason, 「Who am I trying to kid? They』ll always know I』m a foreigner.  
They』ll excuse my mistakes. So forget about all those rules. I just want to get by. Gimme  
some words and phrases and get out of my way. As long as they understand!」    
That』s an attitude to be resisted. When you learn another language, you will be  
accepted as an honoured volunteer into the culture of another people. Do you want to be  
accorded a low rank or a high rank? Learn the language properly, which means  
(eventual) conquest of the grammar. Don』t be a buck private when, for a few minutes of  
extra concentration, you can be a general.    
Look at it this way. Grammar is not a marathon run in which, if you tire, falter, or  
fall, you fail. Grammar is an edifice you must build on your property. But it doesn』t have  
to be done all at once. At the appointed moment in your studies, I will advise you to  
master the first five lessons in your grammar book. (Some call it a textbook or a  
workbook – it』s the book they』ll give you at the bookstore if you ask, 「Have you got  
anything that teaches you French?」) After that, you will advance through reading,  
conversation, comprehension, and real world contact with the languages in addition to the  
grammar.    
As I grappled with the complexities of grammar in Russian, Finnish, Hungarian,  
and, to a lesser extent, German, I had visions of those people way back when they were  
wandering tribes. I imagined the tribal elders squatting around campfires consulting with  
soothsayers who warned them, 「In the mid twentieth century a child will be born to the  
Farber family in a place they』ll call America. He will try to learn our language. At  
present it』s too simple. Get back to work and come up with some more grammar. Let our  
noun endings mire him up to his hips. Let the felsh of his face feel the thorns of our  
verbs. Flay his back with exceptions to our rules and let his hair get caught in our  
inflecting negatives and perfective aspects.    
「Hurry!」 the soothsayer concludes. 「We haven』t got a century to waste. Get in there  
right now and mess our language up so that poor guy will never get it!」         
 
Now let the adult mind enter and make peace. Obviously, no language tries to be  
hard just to keep you out. Whatever rules you find perplexing in your target language,  
that language came by them naturally and organically. Grammar does change, but so  
slowly you』ll never have to worry about it. Approach the grammar with a smile and your  
hand extended. That which you understand, take and keep. That which is confusing,  
return to again and again. That which seems impossible, return to again and again and  
again, until it becomes merely confusing. It will ultimately become clear. Meanwhile,  
however, you will be speeding ahead in your command of the language as you keep  
returning to those stubborn fortresses of grammatical resistance.    
I can honestly say I came to like the study of grammar. Once you finally approach  
grammar with the right attitude, it becomes both a map that shows you the pathways  
through a language and a rocket that takes you there faster.    
A paleontologist can find lifetime fascination with a fossil a child might ignore,  
kick, or toss into the lake just to hear the splash. Likewise, the grammar of various  
languages throws off some laughs and insights nonlinguists never get a chance to marvel  
at.    
In German, for example, a woman doesn』t achieve feminine gender until she gets  
married. The word for 「girl」 (M.dchen) and 「miss」 (Fr.ulein) are both neuter gender. In  
Russian, the past tense of verbs acts like an adjective; it doesn』t shift forms according to  
person and number as verbs normally do, but shift according to gender and number as  
adjectives do. In Norwegian, Danish, and Swedish the definite article (「the」) follows the  
noun and is attached to it. Therefore, 「a field」 in Norwegian is en mark. 「The field,」,  
however, is marken. Romanian and Albanian, completely unrelated to the Scandinavian  
languages, do the same thing.    
In Finnish, the word for 「not」 is a verb. (At least it behaves like a verb.) Finnish,  
alone in all the world, has an inflecting negative. In every other language in which verbs  
conjugate, the form of the verb changes according to person and number, whether the  
verb is positive or negative. Thus, in Spanish the verb meaning 「to want」 goes yo quiero,  
tu quieres, el quiere. If you wish to say 「I don』t want」, you keep the verb forms the same  
and throw the word for 「not」, no, in front of it (yo no quiero, tu no quieres, el no quiere).    
In Finnish, and this is pure believe-it-or-not to anyone who』s looked at a lot of  
different languages, it』s the word for not that does the changing! Thus, 「I want,」 「you  
want,」 「he wants」 in Finnish goes, (min.) haluan, (sin.) haluat, (h.n) halua. In the  
negative, however, the verb for 「want」 becomes halua in all persons and the word for  
「not」 changes from person to person. Thus, 「I don』t want,」 「you don』t want,」 「he  
doesn』t want」 becomes (min.) en halua, (sin.) et halua, (h.n) ei halua.    
I think my most impossible to top discovery is the fact that in Hindi and Urdu  
「tomorrow」 and 「yesterday」 are translated by the same word. Once, a Pakistani cab  
driver actually seemed irked that I found that to be at all strange. 「We have verb tenses to  
tell us which is which」 was his testy explanation.    
American feminists have mounted crusades to convert sexist terms that have over  
the years insinuated themselves deep into the language. We』ve all abandoned chairman,  
for example, for the cumbersome but less provocative chairperson, manhole for  
maintenance hole, and so on.    
It』s strange that the most blazing example of language sexism has gone unreformed,  
even though it occurs in some countries with active and successful feminist movements.    
 
Maybe it』s because, unlike manhole, this sexism is more than just a word or a term. It』s  
gone through the bone into the marrow, through the words of the language into the  
grammar.    
You may remember it from Spanish 1. You may have gotten it right on the tests and  
not thought of it since. I refer to the Romance language 「gender surrender」 from  
feminine to masculine.    
Let』s say two women are having lunch. If you want to refer to them in Spanish, the  
word is ellas, the feminine 「they」 or 「them.」 If they should be joined by a man, however,  
the ellas becomes ellos, masculine for 「they」 or 「them.」 And no matter how many more  
women show up and crowd around the table, the Spanish language can never put that  
humpty dumpty ellas back into play – unless the lone man leaves!    
Theoretically, a million women can be rallying in the main square of the capital.  
The newspapers will report that ellas rallied, made demands, did thus and so. If, however,  
one man wanders into the square to join in, the proper pronoun is ellos! And that same  
rule goes for French, Italian, Portugese, Romanian, and a few other languages.    
You may never come to love grammar, but work with it. Although sometimes  
annoying and thick in disguise, it』s your friend.    
                          
French or Tagalog:    
Choosing a Language                   
What are your language objectives?    
This is not merely one of those abstract questions universities and fitness centres  
like to annoy you with before they accept your application.    
Are you planning to marry a German and live in Germany? Then the language you  
want to learn in German. You should stick to German and learn it well. Do you own a  
hardware store in a neighbourhood of a growing American city where your customers  
represent eighteen different language groups, including Tagalog and Punjabi? Then you  
want to learn greetings, key business expressions like 「invoice」 and 「charge account,」  
and the names of as many items in your inventory as you can in eighteen different  
languages, including Tagalog and Punjabi.    
The way you』re going to spend your language learning hours depends on your  
objectives.    
We』re going to presume here that whatever language you choose to learn, you want  
to learn well. If you merely want to learn a smattering of greetings and phrases in a lot of  
languages, great. You』re in for a lot of fun, particularly when you see, if you haven』t  
already, how far even a few words can carry you. In that case, the departure from the  
method outlined here is obvious. You don』t need mastery of the grammar. Most big  
bookstores offer racks of phrase books for travellers in up to twenty-five different  
languages. Buy all you want and study your favourite ten or fifteen of the first hundred  
phrases in each.    
Don』t feel frivolous if you feel you want to learn a language but don』t know which  
one. You』re part of a movement to correct a weakness that has bedevilled America since  
the founding of our nation. Do you like opera? Try Italian. Diamonds? Try Dutch.  
Commercial advantage? German or Japanese. Cutting edge positioning for the world  
down the road? Chinese or Arabic. East-West barrier breaking and door opening?  
Russian.    
French is second only to English as an international language, spoken far beyond  
the borders of France itself. Spanish enables Americans to become more complete    
 
citizens of the Western Hemisphere, while a resurgent Spain itself becomes an  
increasingly important part of Europe.    
If willingness of subject peoples to learn the language of the conqueror is any  
indication of the conqueror』s popularity, then the winning conqueror is England and the  
loser is Russia. Those forced into Moscow』s postwar empire had an aversion to learning  
Russian, but in spite of Communism』s failure, the Russian language remains the most  
widely spoken of the Slavic languages. It can be your key to the dozen or so related  
languages (Polish, Czech, etc.).    
Maybe you want to learn a difficult language, like Finnish; an easy language, like  
Indonesian; a useful language, like French; or an obscure language, like Albanian.    
My motives for learning various languages have ranged from chance and youthful  
energy (Norwegian) to wanting a vital tool for my work (Spanish) to processing refugees  
(Hungarian) to getting dates with women whose looks I liked (Swedish) to proving I  
wasn』t an idiot for almost flunking Latin (Chinese).    
Nobody who sells language learning books and devices will ever frown in  
disappointment at your choice of a language. Don』t feel you have to apologise or explain  
that you want to learn Czech – or Catalan or Yoruba or Urdu or Kurdish – for no other  
reason than you』re tired of walking around a world as exciting as this one speaking only  
one language!   
                          
Gathering Your Tools                   
You』ve decided which language you』re going to learn, and you』ve made a deal with the  
grammar of that language: you agree to learn it, and in return it agrees not to rush you,  
bore you, discourage you, or hurt you.    
Now it』s time to go shopping. Find a bookstore that offers a broad selection of  
language learning materials. Don』t settle for one where the clerk is not sure but says,  
「We might have something in French and Spanish over in 『Language.』」         
BASIC TEXTBOOK         
Find a basic book (textbook, workbook) that gives you a good grounding in the grammar  
of the language. Never mind if it seems to give you grammar and little else. Never mind  
if it reminds you of the books that depressed you back in high school and college. We』ll  
find all the excitement – reading and conversation – elsewhere. Grammar is all you need  
from this one.         
DICTIONARY         
Most language dictionaries are two way: English-French (or whatever) and French- 
English. Make sure the dictionary you buy at least lives up to that. (I have walked out of  
bookstores with dictionaries I assumed were two way that turned out to be only one way,  
and the way I wasn』t looking for!)    
A lot of dictionaries are infuriatingly inadequate. They don』t even have words like  
negotiate and proprietor. Spend a little time making sure you』re getting something  
substantial. It』s a good idea to look through a newspaper and make a list of some of the  
more complicated words in the news columns. Those are the words you』ll soon be  
looking up. Does that dictionary have them? Price, colour, and the neatness with which  
the dictionary fits into your pocket, brief case, or handbag are a lot less important than  
finding a dictionary that can deliver.              
 
PHRASE BOOK         
Buy a phrase book for travellers. Berlitz publishes a series in eighteen languages, and  
others keep popping up in bookstores and the racks of airport newsstands. They』re  
inexpensive and easy to use. These books, smaller than a piece of toast, offer little or no  
grammar, but they bristle with practical words and phrases, listing the English followed  
by the foreign language and then a transliteration that guides the rankest beginner to an  
understandable, usually a creditable, pronunciation.    
Don』t be put off by the na.vete, inexpensiveness, superficiality, and comparative  
weightlessness of these travellers』 phrase books when laid alongside your impressive  
dictionary and your complex grammar book. Good zoos need hummingbirds as well as  
elephants.         
NEWSPAPER OR MAGAZINE         
Find a newspaper or magazine in your target language. Most big cities have newsstands  
where you can buy publications in a dazzling variety of different languages. Otherwise,  
call the nearest consulate or embassy of the country whose language you』re out to learn.  
Usually they』re proud and pleased to help you. If you have a choice, go for a publication  
from that country itself, rather than one published by immigrants from that country in  
America. Certainly no foreign language publication printed in America is likely to  
contain language more authentic than publications printed in the home country, and it  
may very well be less authentic.    
A friend of mine who set out to learn French immediately bought a subscription to  
Le Monde, a popular Paris daily. That』s overkill. If he were to learn every word in any  
one issue of Le Monde, it would be 「mission accomplished.」 One issue of one  
publication in your target language at this point is all you need.         
STUDENT READER         
It may be difficult, but if possible see if you can locate a schoolbook or some reading  
material from the country at about a sixth grade level. Such books are obviously excellent  
bridges from the rudiments to the real world. If you can』t find one, never mind. Your  
newspaper or magazine will seem elementary to you soon enough.         
PORTABLE TAPE PLAYER         
The invention of the handy portable cassette tape player catapults language learners from  
the ox cart to the supersonic jet. You can now inhale a foreign language through your  
ears. 「You can』t expect me to do two things at once!」 is a bygone complaint. Listening to  
foreign language cassettes as you go about your daily deeds is a high form of doing two  
things at once.    
The Walkman (or any such tape player) is an electronic can opener for whatever  
language you』re learning. Formerly we had to chew through the tin.              
      
CASSETTE COURSES         
There are many cassette courses in many foreign languages. They range from 「travel」  
cassettes, really simple tourist phrase books set to sound and costing between ten and  
twenty dollars, clear up to multicassette study courses that carry the student into  
advanced levels and cost between one and two hundred dollars, or more.    
Don』t dismiss the least expensive ones as 「superficial little travel cassettes.」 If you  
master every word, every phrase, every pronunciation, and every grammatical point  
contained in even the simplest of those cassettes, you can consider yourself advanced.    
There are basically four kinds of cassettes for the study of foreign languages. We』ll  
call them flat single rep, flat double rep, formatted, and cultural.    
The flat single rep cassettes, usually the least expensive, give you the English word  
or phrase followed by the foreign equivalent uttered only one time.    
The flat double rep cassettes are the same, except the foreign phrase is repeated  
twice. (When you begin making your own study cassettes, you』ll repeat the foreign piece  
three times.)    
The formatted cassette puts theories of instruction into practice and follows systems  
that some highly successful language teachers have found effective. For example the  
Pimsleur method, named after the late Dr. Paul Pimsleur, takes the student by the ear and  
guides him through the language as though it were a Disneyland exhibit. Unfortunately  
Dr. Pimsleur died before he could personally develop courses in a large variety of  
languages to advanced levels. His techniques, however, are being applied to more  
courses in more languages by Dr. Charles A. S. Heinle of the Cassette Learning Centre in  
Concord, Massachusetts.    
The Pimsleur method provides the best minute by minute 「learning through  
listening,」 thanks to several strokes of Dr. Pimsleur』s innovative genius.    
First of all, you become a participant. Pimsleur doesn』t let you merely listen in  
hopes your lazy mind will help itself to some of the new words being offered on the  
smorgasbord. After five minutes with any Pimsleur course you will always harbour a  
certain disdain for all cassette courses that merely give you a voice saying something in  
English followed by the equivalent in the target language. Pimsleur pricks your  
wandering mind to attention by asking, for example, 「Do you remember the Greek word  
for 『wine』?」    
Theoretically, that little trick shouldn』t make a spectacular difference. After all, you  
bought the course. You want to learn the language. Why should the teacher on cassette  
have to find ways to constantly recover your attention? The unfortunate truth is that the  
average mind plays hooky whenever possible. The difference between Pimsleur asking,  
「Do you remember the Greek word for 『wine』?」 and a voice simply saying 「wine」 is, as  
Mark Twain once put it, 「the difference between lightning and the lightning bug!」    
Nor does Pimsleur always settle for the simple verbal prompt. A typical Pimsleur  
tactic is to demand, 「You accidentally bump into a man getting on the bus. What do you  
say?」 That ingrains the foreign phrases for 「excuse me」 far more than a rote recitation of  
the words themselves.    
Pimsleur』s 「graduated interval recall」 achieves what I call the 「pinball effect.」  
When the steel ball in the pinball machine nears the bottom, you can manipulate the    
 
flippers to catch the ball and send it all the way back to the top again. Likewise, at the  
very instant when your mind is about to let a new word or phrase 「fall to the bottom」,  
Pimsleur zings it in again, sending it back to the top of your awareness. This time it  
doesn』t sink so fast. When it does, Pimsleur hits it again.    
Pimsleur gives you a pause on the cassette after each question he asks you. In the  
early going there』s a temptation to stop the machine while you flounder for the answer.  
Don』t! Learn to try to come up with the answer during the pause provided. That will  
more than teach you the word. It will train you to have that word ready for action at all  
times. It』s marvellous to feel your growth as you relisten to your Pimsleur lessons,  
succeeding more and more each time at delivering the required word before the teacher』s  
voice rolls over you with the next question.    
Berlitz is the most famous name in language instruction, and except for the Berlitz  
Travel Cassettes, which are flat single rep, all their cassette courses are formatted. The  
Berlitz Basic Courses, available in French, Spanish, German, and Italian, feature  
ingenious conversations between teacher and students, and their top of the line Berlitz  
Comprehensive Courses are really dazzling soap opera-like sagas filled with romance,  
treachery, suspense, and drama. Both the basic and the comprehensive courses sneak  
massive payloads of grammar and vocabulary into the student』s repertoire.    
Cultural cassettes aren』t really language learning cassettes at all, but many people  
suppose they are and buy and sell them as such. Songs, plays, readings, stories, and  
poems in foreign languages are indeed helpful, but shouldn』t be mistaken for the 「high  
protein」 intake needed to build command of a foreign language. They』re great relaxers,  
tests of how far you』ve come, adjunctive exercises, and ways of letting the foreigner  
know that you view his language as more than just a briar patch of irregular verbs.    
The cultural cassettes are the condiments. The others are the entrees.         
BLANK CASSETTES         
We have do it yourself gasoline pumps. We do not have do it yourself eye surgery. It may  
seem strange to some (and wildly objectionable to others) to recommend do it yourself  
language cassettes starring you in the language you are trying to learn. Orthodox  
language teachers are likely to consider that something akin to doing your own eye  
surgery.    
I』ve found it extremely helpful. At some point you will have gotten the hang of  
pronunciation sufficiently to push the record button of your cassette player and recite  
your own words and phrases onto a blank cassette. Your pronunciation will not be good.  
It may be bad. But the value of being able to listen to a cassette with the words you need  
and want at the moment – rather than a cassette prepared by somebody with no  
knowledge of you, your desires, or your needs – much more than outweighs the  
disadvantage of your imperfections.    
So, get blank cassettes – the shortest possible – so you can start building a cassette  
library of the words and phrases you want to know to supplement those the educators  
who produced all the standard cassettes decided to teach you first.    
It』s better to know the word – its meaning, its spelling, its use in sentences – even if  
you have to listen to it in your unskilled accent, than not to know the word at all.         
 
FLASH CARDS         
Printed flash cards are available in the major languages. They』re about the size of  
business cards and usually provide a vocabulary of a thousand words. Flash cards are the  
most underrated language learning tool of all. They』ve been around for decades and go  
widely unused, even by those who own them.    
Flash cards commonly list the English word (plus related words) on one side of the  
card and their foreign equivalents on the other. Some sets of flash cards give you a little  
grammar at no extra cost, adding to the word itself the forms of that word a student of the  
language should know.    
The language student should reach for a fresh stack of flash cards before he leaves  
home in the morning as instinctively as a policeman reaches for his badge. The flash  
cards, more than any other tool, can help the student take advantage of the day』s 「hidden  
moments,」 the secret weapon upon which the promise and the premise of this method is  
based.    
Learn how to keep your flash cards handy. Whip them out and flash test yourself  
the instant you find yourself with the time. (The person you』re walking with stops to look  
at a shop window. You』ve read the menu, finished the newspaper, and the waiter hasn』t  
come yet. The clerk has to validate your credit card. There』s a line at the bank or at the  
ticket counter. The elevator seems to be stopping at all floors.) Learn how to draw those  
cards out and start flashing even if all you』ll have is five seconds. If the person you』re  
telephoning doesn』t answer until the fifth ring, he』s given you time to go through two or  
three entries. Learn to be quick. I』ve learned how to master a whole new Chinese  
character between the time I dial the last digit and the time my party says hello.         
BLANK FLASH CARDS         
Whether you can locate prepared flash cards in your target language or not, go to your  
nearest stationery store and get a hefty supply of blanks. As you travel through the  
language you』ll constantly come across new words, modern slang, special phrases you』d  
like to know, cute sayings a native speaker teaches you at a party, and the like. Capture  
them immediately on your blank flash cards and carry a stack with you at all times. In  
later chapters when we learn how all these tools interrelate, you』ll realise the importance  
of your own homemade flash cards. Purists may quarrel about recording your own  
foreign language vocabulary building cassettes. Nobody can quarrel with you preparing  
your own flash cards.         
STURDIKLEERS         
Sturdikleers are the handy celluloid or plastic packets that protect passports, driver』s  
licenses, etc. Find the size that best accommodates a stack of flash cards and pick up as  
many as you need, or more.         
FELT HIGHLIGHTER PEN         
 
You』ll need a felt pen to mark all the words in your newspaper or magazine that you  
don』t know. Choose a colour that highlights but doesn』t obscure the word when you mark  
it.    
Those are the tools. Now let』s go do the job!    
                          
The Multiple Track    
Attack                   
So is there really a magic way to make learning a foreign language painless?    
Yes and no. We have some magic, all right, tricks and tactics that literally shovel  
the language into your head, as opposed to your high school Spanish class that  
teaspooned it in or didn』t bother getting it in at all. The system, however, won』t work  
unless you do. There』s going to be pain, but you will have something – plenty – to show  
for it.    
The promise here is not gain without pain. It』s the most gain for the least pain.    
If you suddenly decide to get physically fit (just as you』ve decided to learn another  
language) you wouldn』t sit around and wonder, 「Let』s see. We』ve got aerobic exercises,  
free weights, stretching, high tech gym machines, jogging, swimming, vitamins, and  
sensible nutrition. Which one shall I use?」    
Obviously, you』re going to use a mix of some or all of the above. And that』s the  
way to approach learning another language. The multiple track attack simply parts from  
the absurd notion that you should choose a grammar book or a cassette course or a reader  
or a phrase book; instead, it sets you up with all of the above – and more –  
simultaneously.    
You will fail or you will succeed. If you fail, your books, cassettes, dictionaries,  
and scattered flash cards will litter your drawers and closets like so many unlifted  
barbells, unswallowed vitamins, unsoiled workout suits, and unused jogging shoes. They  
will mock you every time your embarrassed eye falls upon them.    
Succeed, and you』ll be the proud owner of another language.    
Charles Berlitz says that saying a word or phrase aloud ten to twenty times is more  
effective a learning technique than merely reading the same item fifty to one hundred  
times. Likewise, seeing a word or phrase in your grammar book fifty times does not  
secure it in your memory as effectively as seeing it two or three times and them coming  
across that same word or phrase by surprise in a newspaper or magazine or hearing it on  
a cassette or in a radio broadcast or a movie or in conversation with a native speaker.    
 
It may be hard to explain why the multiple track attack works, but it』s easy to prove  
that it does. It』s somehow related to the excitement of running into someone from your  
hometown on the other side of the world. You might have ignored him back home or  
dismissed him with a 「howdy,」 but you』ll be flung into each other』s arms by the power of  
meeting unexpectedly far from home.    
The rub off effect kicks in nicely almost from the beginning of your effort as words  
you learned from a flash card or cassette pop up in your workbook or newspaper. Sure,  
you will eventually conquer the word even if it occurs only in your grammar book or  
your phrase book or on your cassette, but that learning involves repeated frontal assault  
on a highly resistant unknown. Let that same word come at you, however, in a real life  
newspaper article and your mind embraces it as an old friend.    
Attempting to master a language with a grammar book alone is too boring; with  
phrase books alone, too superficial; with cassettes alone, too fruitless (except with  
Pimsleur!); and with dictionary and newspaper alone, impossible. The multiple track  
attack makes your work pay off.         
Getting Started         
Open your grammar to the first lesson. Do you understand the first paragraph? If so,  
proceed to paragraph two. If not, reread paragraph one. Can you determine precisely  
what it is that』s blocking you from comprehension? If so, take a pencil (not pen) and  
underline the word or words that are tripping you up. Run a wavy pencil line down the  
left hand margin of whatever confuses you. That paragraph will never change. The  
grammatical point that the confusing paragraph seeks to make will remain as immutable  
as Gibraltar until your mind decides to open up to it. Comprehension frequently clicks on  
like a light switch. No rush.    
Try to summarise what you don』t understand. Pretend you』re writing a letter to your  
aunt complaining about this ridiculous new language you』re trying to learn and, using as  
few words as possible, encapsulate your confusion in writing. Take that note and put it in  
a Sturdikleer holder and carry it with you in your pocket or bag. Get into the habit of  
writing down everything that confuses with you and carrying it with you. You will try to  
find informants or mentors – either native speakers or others who』ve learned your target  
language well enough to answer your questions. Befriend the Korean grocer, the Italian  
waiter, the Albanian at the pizzaria, your dentist』s Romanian secretary. You don』t need  
such people, but they』re extremely helpful and easier to locate than you might think, and  
getting easier all the time as America becomes an international mixture of peoples. Your  
informants will usually love being asked to help you learn their language.    
Let』s suppose you』ve stubbed your venturesome toe on paragraph one or two or  
three or whichever, and no comprehension clicks on. At this point you must consciously  
overturn the rules of misdirected American language teaching and do something radical.  
You must wave goodbye to your unsolved puzzle and keep moving ahead.    
If you don』t understand it, skip it for the time being. Chances are excellent your  
confusion will clear itself up as you progress through more and more concepts that you  
do understand. You will have the pleasure of looking back on earlier lesssons in the  
grammar, seeing your wavy pencil lines beside a now clear paragraph, and saying to    
 
yourself, 「How could I have ever been derailed by this?」 It』s fun erasing those wavy  
lines!    
Continue through five lessons of the grammar before you so much as glance at any  
of your other tools. Leave the cassettes wrapped in their packaging. Don』t be tempted to  
look at the newspaper or magazine in your target language. The more of a language lover  
you are, the tougher it will be. Plodding through grammar while friendly cassettes and  
real life newspapers await will make you feel like a child who has to finish his homework  
before he runs out and plays baseball. And that』s exactly the point. You are a child in  
that new language, and like all children, you have to learn to put first things first.  
Grammar comes first. Build a little character by slogging through five chapters of it. You  
will build up a head of steam that will send you charging headlong into more pleasant  
terrain.    
Cassettes, newspapers, flash cards, and phrase books will cut the boredom out of  
waiting for buses and replace it with growth in another language; these will be your  
reward after you make an honest beginning in the grammar. Sustain your spirit during the  
grammar study by reminding yourself how soon you』re going to be allowed to go out and  
「play.」         
Into the Real World         
When you』ve served out your sentence of five lessons of grammar, spread out all your  
other tools (you should regard them as 「toys」) and prepare to use them all  
simultaneously.    
Take the newspaper or magazine. Go to the upper left hand corner of page one. (In  
languages like Arabic and Hebrew, that will be the upper right hand corner of the 「back」  
page, which is their front.) That article is your assignment. It will easily be the toughest  
newspaper article you』ve ever read. And it will just as certainly do you more good than  
any other.    
Take your highlighter and highlight all the words you don』t know in the first  
paragraph. You may very well end up with a coloured line through every single word in  
that paragraph. After all, this is no schoolhouse text that dips to your beginner』s level.  
This is as real life and real world as an exercise can get. And all you』ve had so far is five  
lessons of elementary grammar. Never mind. Play the game and dutifully mark through  
every word you don』t know, even if it be every last word in that first paragraph!    
Then reach for your dictionary and your blank flash cards. Go to the first word and  
look it up. One of four things will happen: (1) You』ll find the word exactly as it appears  
in the newspaper. (2) You』ll find a word that starts out the same but seems to go haywire  
halfway through or at the end. (3) The word will not be in your dictionary (even though  
you gave that dictionary a 「sophistication」 test before you bought it.) (4) You will think  
that word is not in the dictionary because the word has done crazy things with itself. It』s  
altogether possible, owing to rules of that language you haven』t learned yet, that the role  
of the word as it appears in the newspaper demands it be written differently from the base  
form, which is the one listed in the dictionary. (The word vaya in Spanish, for example,  
won』t be in the dictionary. It』s the singular imperative form of the verb ir meaning 「to  
go.」)    
 
In case 1, the word is in the dictionary spelled exactly the way it is in your  
newspaper (from now on we』ll say 「text」 – it could be a magazine or even a book). Take  
a blank flash card and write the English on one side; then flip it over and write the  
foreign word on the other. Write in block letters so your flash cards will always be easy  
to read. I hesitate to labour the procedure for making your own flash cards. There is a  
preferred procedure, however, and I herewith present it in case you don』t already know it.    
Single words and entire phrases are best handled differently. When you write  
individual words on your flash card, you only need a 「short runway,」 so treat the card in  
its 「tall」 (vertical) form rather than its 「fat」 (horizontal) form and enter your words one  
under the other down the length of the card. Write the English word across the  
「forehead」 of the card, then flip it, not sideways, but head over heels, and write the  
foreign word across the opposite forehead.    
Then turn the card back over to the English side and write your next word directly  
underneath, turn it over and write in the foreign word, and keep repeating until the card is  
filled. That head over heels lengthwise flip makes the card easier to manipulate in a  
crowded bus or elevator and less likely to fall out of your hand.    
When you graduate to writing entire phrases on your blank flash cards, it』s  
obviously better to treat the card in its fat form. Continue to flip head over heels.    
Now, case 2: You find a word in the dictionary that seems as though it』s trying to  
be the word in your text but it falls off track: the ending changes spelling. You』ve  
probably found your base word, all right, but the word in the text, for reasons you don』t  
yet comprehend, has taken another form. Is it a verb? Then the dictionary will give you  
the infinitive form (to be, to do, etc.), whereas the form in your text could be one of many  
variations, depending on person, number, tense, or, in some languages, aspect.    
If that riff of grammatical terms makes you feel like I felt on my fifth day of Latin  
class, fear not. Language teachers would prefer to assume that such grammatical jargon is  
familiar to every graduate of an American high school English class. Alas, that  
assumption is grossly misguided. But help is here. The 「Back to Basics」 chapter later in  
this book will explain all necessary grammatical terms in friendly, nonthreatening  
language that requires no prior understanding of grammar.    
Write the base form – the dictionary form, that is – on your flash card and try to  
decipher the meaning of the text with that base form as a clue.    
If the meaning is clear, don』t worry yet about why the word in the text differs from  
the base form. Part of the fun of this process is having that knowledge surrender itself to  
you as you proceed through your grammar book. If the meaning is not clear, make a  
「question card,」 spelling the confusing word the way it appears in the text. Keep your  
Sturdikleer with question cards with you at all times. When you meet your informant, or  
anybody who can explain your confusion away, pull out the question card and your  
miasma of confusion will become windshield wiper clear.    
List no more than six unknown words per flash card. Don』t clutter the card. It』s a  
good idea to draw a line under both the English and the foreign word, giving each entry  
its own 「cubicle」 on the card. Also, check carefully to make sure you don』t omit either  
the English or the foreign word, giving you a situation in which English word number  
three on the card fails to correspond to foreign word number three. (I once went around  
for almost a year thinking the Russian word for 「prince」 meant 「raspberry jam」!)    
 
In cases 3 and 4, either the word』s not in the dictionary or it』s not there in any form  
recognisable to you. Enter the word on a question card.    
You may have four or five complete cards, eighteen or twenty words defined and  
ready to be learned, from the first paragraph in your text alone. Put those cards in clear  
plastic and carry them with you at all times. Don』t mix them up with the question cards.  
Keep them separate. The cards with the dictionary forms of the foreign words from the  
text you didn』t know, with their English equivalents on the reverse side, are the  
beginning of your collection of linguistic growth protein.         
Advance!         
Now you』re ready for paragraph two. Between paragraphs one and two, you』ve been  
glancing at those flash cards during your hidden moments – waiting in line, on elevators,  
etc. With highlighter poised like a sword, you now sally forth into the second paragraph.    
The going will probably be noticeably easier, because paragraph two will likely be  
dealing with much the same subject matter as paragraph one and many of the words will  
be repeats. Step back and note how many fewer coloured lines marking unknown words  
there are in paragraph two. Never mind that those are repeat words. If you knew them  
from flashing your cards in the interval between tackling paragraph one and tackling  
paragraph two, then it』s clean conquest. Bask in it, and move on to paragraph three.    
No cheating! Don』t let your possible lack of interest in the subject matter of the text  
tempt you into junking it and jumping across the page to another article that looks like  
it』s about something that interests you more. No soldier fighting in the arctic would dare  
ask his commanding officer if he might be excused to go fight in the tropics. Advance!  
Charge! Slog through it one step – one word – at a time.    
By the time you reach the end of page one, if it』s a newspaper, you will note with  
glee that the coloured markings indicating words you didn』t know, almost solid in the  
early paragraphs, will have diminished precipitously by the end of the page. That page is  
a progress chart.    
And you』ll have what seems like a ton of flash cards loaded with words in varying  
degrees of surrender to you. Carry as many flash cards with you as possible, and rotate  
them regularly so your attention is evenly parcelled out among them.         
Tradition bound teachers would have problems with that kind of 「ice plunge,」 a  
naked leap into a foreign language newspaper after only five lessons of grammar with  
nothing for help but a dictionary, which in many cases can』t help because you won』t  
know the various disguises (changing forms) of many of the words. What』s the point?    
There are several. America is a nation of people who make straight A』s in  
intermediate French and then get to Paris and realise they don』t speak intermediate  
French! The knowledge that the text – newspaper, book, magazine, whatever – is a real  
world document that does not condescend to a student』s level is a tremendous confidence  
builder and energiser for your assault upon your target language. The awareness that  
you』re making progress, albeit slowly, through typical text, genuine text, the kind the  
natives buy off their newsstands and read in their coffee shops, gives even the rank  
beginner something of the pride of a battle toughened marine.         
 
Memorise Your Part         
You are now, let』s say, beginning chapter six of your grammar book and fighting your  
way valiantly down the first column of your text. Keep going on both these fronts, and  
pick up another tool.    
Open your phrase book and read the introduction carefully, paying particularly  
close attention to the rules of transliteration. All such books will have three columns: the  
English word or phrase, the foreign language translation, and then the transliteration,  
which is your guide to proper pronunciation using the English alphabet.    
When you get the hang of the language, you won』t need the transliteration crutch.  
Until you do, you need it totally. But note that there is no recognised standard system of  
transliteration. The International Phonetic Alphabet is supposed to be, but nobody uses it  
because learning it is almost as hard as learning another language itself.    
There are at least half a dozen ways to transliterate the capital of China. The  
Chinese communists prefer Beijing. The Chinese nationalists prefer Peking. If that were  
the only word you wanted to learn and there were no need for you to learn transliteration  
systems, we could write it Bay-jing, adding that the Bay is pronounced like the English  
word for the body of water and the jing like the first syllable of 「jingle.」    
Your phrase book will take mercifully little space to tell you how to pronounce the  
words according to their chosen system of transliteration. Usually in less than a page  
you』ll be told to pronounce ai like the y in 「sky」; ei like the eigh in 「weigh」 and so on  
through all the needed sounds. Some phrase books indicate which syllable gets the stress  
by placing an accent mark on top of it, others by capitalising every letter in the syllable.  
Don』t be impatient because you suddenly feel you』re called upon to learn another written  
language which is neither English nor the language you』re trying to learn. Look upon the  
transliteration guide as your opportunity to learn the combination to a safe that will let  
you help yourself to the correct pronunciation of every word in that book!    
Advance now to the first page of phrases in the phrase book. Your newspaper didn』t  
teach you how to say 「How are you?」 and it』s a good bet the first five lessons of your  
grammar didn』t either. Here it comes! This is your first chance to learn how to actually  
say things.    
「Yes.」 「No.」 「Please.」 「Thank you.」 「You』re welcome.」 「Good morning.」 「Good  
afternoon.」 「Good evening.」 」I』m very pleased to meet you.」 「How are you?」 「Very  
well, thanks; and you?」 「Fine.」    
You』ll master these precious nuggets of real life communication quickly. But don』t  
stop with merely mastering them. Use that phrase book and plot a conversational pattern,  
a routine you go into when you meet someone who speaks your target language. Treat it  
as though you』re memorising your part in a play.    
」How do you do?」 「My name is _______.」 「What』s your name?」 「Where are you  
from?」 「How long have you been here?」 「I don』t speak your language well.」 「How do  
you say that in your language?」 「May I get you something to drink?」 「I don』t  
understand.」 「Would you please repeat?」    
Here again, traditionalists would frown. 「That』s not learning a language,」 they』d  
protest. 「That』s just learning how to parrot a few phrases!」    
 
And right they』d be, if that were all you were doing. But you are now accumulating  
flash cards with vocabulary and moving through lesson seven or eight of the grammar, so  
don』t feel you have to apologise for learning how to parrot a few handy phrases.    
Your ability to bandy some useful phrases is a motivator. There you are, speaking  
the language! Isn』t that what you started all this for? Admittedly you』re not debating the  
economic consequences of his government』s latest reversal on tariff agreements, but you  
are asking someone if he』s too cold and telling him you hope to meet him again.    
More magic happens when you』re at that peak motivation. You find yourself  
acquiring more material, more conversational gems gleaned from his end of the  
conversation. Remember, you』re a confessed beginner. When you don』t understand  
something, you』re excused for asking him to repeat it, spell it, write it down on one of  
your blank flash cards. (Always carry some.)    
It』s gratifying, in fact, enthralling, to enter your next conversation with your powers  
to converse enhanced by the previous encounter.    
A note of caution, however. Eventually you may find yourself about to small talk so  
fluently you』ll mistake that ability for having arrived. Back to the newspaper and the  
grammar with you before such thoughts corrupt!         
Add Cassettes         
For most of the history of the world, there was no way the self taught language student  
could hear the language spoken. He had to rely on printed rules, grossly inadequate, to  
guide him in pronunciation of his target language.    
Then came the phonograph record, which seemed like ideal deliverance from  
darkness, until the tape recorder came along, followed quickly by the portable cassette  
tape recorder, which allowed language learners to pick up ear phones and listen to a wide  
variety of foreign language fare as they jogged, shopped, ran errands, or walked to work.    
As is the case with many technological breakthroughs, disappointment followed.  
The closets of many fine, otherwise strong willed people are littered with the wreckage of  
once beautifully packaged foreign language cassette courses. They thought technology  
had replaced study. They thought all you had to do was pop a cassette into the machine,  
press a button, and take in the language like a car takes in gasoline.    
Remove that inflated expectation, resolve to do your part, and the invention of the  
portable cassette tape player will indeed fulfill its promise to the language lover  
endeavouring to become a language learner.    
Are you presently armed with the right cassette course?    
Unless your cassette was mislabelled and carries lessons in a language other than  
the one you』d like to learn, it』s a good learning aid. It may not be the best. It may be far  
behind the best, but so what? It will offer you words and phrases in your target language  
with native accuracy in pronunciation.    
You no more want to limit your hearing of the language to one cassette course than  
you』d want to confine your tennis playing to one partner. The ideal cassette library is one  
in which the student can pull down a cassette for review in rotation and not quite  
remember how the dialogue goes or what』s coming next. A little mystery, rather than rote  
familiarity, aids the student ear in its difficult mission of paying attention.    
 
Within certain obvious limits, you can buy literally every course in your target  
language that』s commercially available and still describe your adventure with the  
language as 「inexpensive.」    
In your beginning stages you should insist on cassettes that come with a written  
transcript of everything recorded. (The Pimsleur courses are an exception. Their  
integration of written word exercises and their back and forth interaction between teacher  
and student more than excuse the absence of word for word transcription.)    
It』s a good idea to follow the text visually as you listen to the cassette the first few  
times. As you get a little bit familiar with the target material, divorce the two. Take the  
cassette and the tape player with you. Listen even when you can』t follow the written text.  
Read the text even when you can』t listen. You』ll find the two excellent reinforcers for  
each other.    
If your cassette course is flat single rep or flat double rep, keep listening over and  
over and try to capture as many words and phrases as you can.    
When you』re ready – actually, long before you』re ready – challenge the cassette to a  
duel. Start at the beginning and see how many words and phrases you know. After the  
English, stop the cassette recorder with the pause button and ask yourself, 「Do I know it  
in the target language? Do I almost know it? Do I know any part of it – how the word or  
phrase begins, how it ends, what major sound characterises it? Do I know enough to give  
myself credit for at least partial conquest?」    
Don』t be in a rush to release the pause button and see how well you did. Make a  
teasing game of it. Make yourself wait for the fulfillment of hearing the term in the target  
language. That will make a stronger hit into your memory. Drop a weighty object from a  
higher tower than previously and it will sink deeper into the mud.    
Then move on to the next term. It』s a little like playing solitaire; no matter how you  
write your own rules, it still retains the arresting power of a game. Maybe you』ll ask  
yourself if you can score one out of five correct; later, one out of four. It』s hard to  
imagine it in the early going, but you will eventually play the game by seeing if you can  
get every term on the cassette correct from beginning to end. But that』s not quite total  
victory. Total victory is seeing if you can do it without stopping to think.    
And then, if your machine has the mechanism, try it at accelerated speed!    
                          
Hidden Moments                   
They taught us in the fable of the tortoise and the hare so early, most of us dismissed it as  
a children』s tale and ignored the powerful lesson it contains: Others may be brighter.  
Others may learn quicker and retain more. Yet whosoever keeps on plodding relentlessly  
toward the goal of mastering another language, though his gifts be dim, stands a better  
chance than the unmotivated genius whose dazzle ignited so much envy in high school  
Spanish class.    
Harnessing your hidden moments, those otherwise meaningless scraps of time  
you』d normally never think of putting to any practical use, and using them for language  
study – even if it』s no more than fifteen, ten, or five seconds at a time – can turn you into  
a triumphant tortoise.    
By now you』re slogging your way through the grammar and enjoying it more (or  
suffering it less) than you did in college because you no longer feel obliged to dwell upon  
a knotty point until you understand it before moving forward. You will not fail a test or  
risk a bad grade if you abandon some grammatical black hole that tries to swallow you,  
and move on ahead.    
You』re battling your way through the foreign language newspaper, your slow  
progress mitigated by the awareness that this is the real world and the daily language  
won』t get any tougher than that text.    
You』re cherry picking through your phrase book, learning how to say practical  
things in your target language and rehearsing all those precious phrases as though they  
were your part in a play.    
Your cassettes are beginning to bore you without teaching you a great deal (yet).    
You』re amassing a flash card collection.    
By now you』ve probably met someone from the country whose language you』re  
learning and, like a rookie cop about to make his first collar, you risked your ego by  
attempting a greeting. He laughed appreciatively – and answered you in English.    
Hidden moments will heal your deficiencies soon enough, but first let』s talk about  
the unhidden moments, the study time you』ve arranged to commit to your endeavour.  
This book is written for those who can』t or don』t want to expend the time or money  
required to attend formal classes. Successful self teaching is our objective. If you can    
 
take a whole hour every day and devote it to your studies, you』re in excellent position to  
make satisfying, even dramatic, progress. If you can devote a half hour a day, you』re still  
poised for success.    
If you can』t commit a regular block of time, if the best you can do is an hour here, a  
half hour there, and maybe a three hour block of time over the weekend, that』s  
satisfactory, provided you keep it up and maintain momentum.    
Gardens unattained go to weed. Apples bitten into and abandoned turn brown.  
Likewise, your collection of language data – words, phrases, rules, and idioms – will  
dissolve into a useless mass if not kept up.    
Apportion as much time as you reasonably can and as regularly as you can, and  
then enjoy the magic as the hidden moments kick in.    
A professional financial advisor on radio once urged people to take careful  
inventory of their financial assets, promising that overlooked and forgotten riches were to  
be revealed at every hand. Her credibility disappeared for me at that moment. I honestly  
think I』ve never been at a point in my economic life where I was likely to underestimate  
my holdings by as much as seventy-five cents!    
When it comes to time, however, that』s a much more lucrative matter!    
You can learn a language in twelve months using only those moments you didn』t  
realise you had.    
We』ve already mentioned a few corners in which hidden moments lurk awaiting  
liberation. Let』s review them and add some more.    
Moments we instinctively bid goodbyes to include those spent waiting for and  
riding in elevators, waiting for the person you』re dialing to answer, waiting while he puts  
you on hold, waiting for a long outgoing message from someone』s answering machine to  
reach its conclusion. There are those moments when you』re helplessly trapped – when  
someone who』s too good a friend to hang up on delivers an unending narrative requiring  
no verbal participation on your part beyond an occasional grunt, groan, 「dear me,」 「gee  
whiz,」 or other appropriate interjection to let him know you』re still there. It』s usually safe  
to divert some of your attention from your friend to your flash cards.    
There』s a major payload of hidden moments right there, and we haven』t even gone  
beyond the elevator and the telephone! We can take time back from our days just like the  
Dutch took land back from the sea and put it to work.    
What do you normally do when you』re waiting in line at the bank, the post office,  
the airline counter, the bus or train station, or the supermarket checkout counter?    
What do you do while you brush your teeth? You could be listening to a language  
cassette. What plans have you made for the time you』re going to spend waiting behind  
your steering wheel at the gas pump? Or waiting for the rinse cycle? Waiting for the  
school bus?    
You get the point. An honest, thorough scrutiny of your normal week will yield  
dozens, even hundreds, of minutes that can be put to work learning your target language.  
And don』t forget, a scrap of time need be no longer than five seconds to advance you  
closer to your goal.    
Arrange your life so you will never be caught without something to study in your  
target language. If you carry a briefcase or a pocketbook, your grammar book or  
newspaper, even your dictionary, can be your companion. Phrase books are usually so  
thin they easily fit into a coat pocket. There』s nothing holy about your foreign language    
 
newspaper. Cut off a page and fold it up and carry it with you, along with your  
highlighter.    
Certainly we can all agree there』s no excuse ever to get caught without flash cards.  
The instant you get stymied – in line at the cash machine, waiting for a store clerk, etc. –  
pull out your deck of flash cards and get to work.    
If your hidden moment only lasts five seconds, giving you time for only one flash  
card, give that flash card five seconds of the right kind of effort. Look at the English.  
Suppose it says 「shoe.」 Say to yourself something like, 「What a great moment in my life.  
I presently do not know the word for 『shoe』 in my target language. Within seconds that  
infirmity will be erased! I will get a look at the word and, though it may not lodge in my  
memory after one single flash, that word will eventually be mine.」 Make a big deal out of  
it. Indeed, it is a big deal when you expand your vocabulary. Now flip the card. If your  
target language is Spanish, the other side of the card will reveal the word for shoe as  
zapato. Once we hand you the ultimate vocabulary memory weapon, the one developed  
by Harry Lorayne, you will put that word through a mental process that will make it  
easier to retrieve. Right now, just try to remember it any way you can, even by rote.    
Proceed to the next card, or the next word on that card. You should have enough  
cards with you so the same word doesn』t pop up so quickly that you haven』t really tested  
your retention, but not so many cards that you don』t meet the same word for another two  
or three days.    
The fun comes when you meet the word again. Imagine the word is your opponent  
in a duel. Is it going to be you or he? Look only at the English. Try to remember. Don』t  
flip the card until you』re certain you』re defeated and cannot possibly come up with the  
word.    
Even grizzled multilingual veterans who』ve used this system successfully will find  
themselves letting their guard down and moving from the English word on the flash card  
to the foreign word too quickly. No challenge, no effort, no gain.    
There』s no memory glue better than standing there, in the line at a bank or  
wherever, looking at the English side of a flash card, not knowing the word immediately,  
trying hard to bring it back, fearing you can』t, and refusing to give up. Suddenly you  
think you have it. You flip the card over and see that you were, indeed, correct!    
That word has no more chance of escaping you than your middle name.         
Eye-Ear and Ear Only Moments         
So far your hidden moments have been those that could be utilised either for reading  
(flash cards) or listening (cassettes). Let』s call them eye-ear moments. When you』re  
walking through town or through the park, jogging, riding in a bus or train too crowded  
for reading, or driving or riding in a car at night, obviously you can』t play with flash  
cards. These are, however, also hidden moments that offer exquisite opportunities for  
foreign language infusion.    
Let』s call them ear only moments.    
A good rule is to use eye-ear moments for eye functions (flash cards, grammar  
book, newspaper) leaving ear functions (cassette listening) for those moments when you  
couldn』t be reading anyhow. More simply, when you can listen or read, read. Save your  
listening for when you can only listen.    
                     
Cassettes En Route         
When I dramatize this system of language learning at seminars for the Learning Annex in  
New York and other educational organisations, displeasure clouds the brows of the  
students when I urge them to 「wrap the university around their heads」 (put on their  
headphones) and study their cassettes as they walk, run, amble, or do errands around the  
neighbourhood. There』s an attitude of 「Enough, already. I』ve done my language workout  
for the day. Let me enjoy my walk or my run and take in nature and the landscape.」    
This claim may sound inflated until you test it, but leisurely strolls and nature  
walks, far from being dampened, are actually enhanced by cassette learning en route.  
You can invent little listening games that make it fun. I, for instance, may start the  
cassette and listen until I reach the first word in the target language I don』t already know.  
I』ll then stop the cassette player and concentrate on capturing that word for the remainder  
of the city block. When I reach the curb of the next block, I』ll start the tape until I reach  
another word I don』t know and repeat the process.    
There』s a happy kind of synergy when you realise you』re exercising and you』re  
learning; you』re enjoying the beauty of the surroundings and you』re growing. You can  
slow down. You can settle for 「collecting a few new words」 as you might collect a few  
blossoms a few seashells. You can turn off the tape for a while and throw the headphones  
back over your neck and inhale and enjoy. Don』t separate your life into 「fun」 and  
「study.」 Harmonise language study with your activities.    
Get your cassettes into action when you wake up, stretch, make the bed, fix  
breakfast, brush teeth, dry off after a bath or shower, wash dishes, and so on through all  
the moments when those less ambitious turn on the radio or TV. Don』t forget, passive  
listening is better than nothing, but not by much! Engage the English mentally and try to  
beat the voice on the cassette to the foreign word.    
「Harnessing hidden moments」 is a three word course in language learning all by  
itself. It offers a side benefit that has nothing to do with learning languages but has a lot  
to do with enjoying life.    
Look at those other people, those unfortunates who, unlike you, have no intention  
of harnessing their hidden moments to learn languages or anything else. Look how they  
wait like zombies in line, their faces masks of boredom and pain. Your boredom and pain  
will vanish the instant you get into line and whip out your flash cards.    
Learning languages can become incidental to daily life. It』s often fulfilling enough  
just having something useful to do! Remember what Dean Martin said to the slowly  
sipping starlet: 「I spill more than you drink!」 Just by using the minutes you』d otherwise  
spill, you can learn another language.    
                          
Harry Lorayne』s    
Magic Memory Aid                   
How does a farmhand feel the day the tractor arrives, after he』s plowed by hand for  
thirty-one years? Undoubtedly the way I felt when, after decades of memorising foreign  
vocabulary the old way, I suddenly discovered Harry Lorayne and his methods.    
Harry Lorayne became well known some years ago as the world』s leading 「memory  
magician.」 His feats of memory for names and faces, complex numbers, and hundreds of  
objects he could repeat forward, backward, or in scrambled order enlivened many a late  
night TV show.    
Harry Lorayne was to be a guest on my WOR radio show one night to talk about his  
book on improving memory. It was his seventeenth or eighteenth book on memory and,  
as I was looking it over, I saw a short, almost hidden chapter entitled 「Memorising  
Foreign Language Vocabulary.」    
I sped to that chapter and my language learning life changed completely from that  
moment forward. I think I actually cried in rage at all the time I』d wasted attempting rote  
memory of foreign words during the thirty-one years I had studied languages before I met  
Harry Lorayne!    
Let me invite you now to pay one last visit to the old way of learning foreign  
language vocabulary before we wave it an untearful goodbye. Imagine facing a page  
containing a hundred words in a foreign language. You only know eight or nine of them,  
you have a test tomorrow morning at eight o』clock, and your roommate is playing the  
radio too loud.    
You sit there with your palms pressed over your ears repeating those unrelenting  
syllables over and over, hoping enough of them will stick by dawn to give you a passing  
grade.    
Did you enjoy that kind of learning? Are you nostalgic for it? If so, enjoy the  
recollection now. After the following pages you will never tackle new vocabulary that  
way again.    
In the fourth or fifth grade, when Miss Hobbs was teaching us the rudiments of  
music, my class accomplished an amazing feat of memory in one flash (many of you    
 
probably had the same experience). The notes on the five line music staff, E, G, B, D, and  
F, could easily be remembered with the help of a simple phrase, 「Every Good Boy Does  
Fine.」 What』s more, we learned that the notes in the spaces between the lines were F, A,  
C, and E, or, as we ten year olds guessed, the word 「face.」 Who could ask for anything  
more?    
Harry Lorayne teaches us we can ask for everything more! He teaches a system of  
association – called mnemonics – that allows you to almost always bring forth any word  
in conversation whenever you want it.    
The way to capture and retain a new word in a foreign language is to sling a vivid  
association around the word that makes it impossible to forget. Lasso the unfamiliar with  
a lariat woven from the familiar.    
We』ll now take a random assortment of words in various languages and  
demonstrate how it works.    
The Spanish word for 「old」 is viejo, pronounced vee-A-ho, the middle syllable  
rhyming with 「hay.」 Imagine a Veterans Administration hospital – a VA hospital – that』s  
so old and decrepit they have to tear it down and build a new one. Before they lay the  
dynamite the crew foreman calls the contractor and tells him, 「We don』t have to waste  
dynamite on this VA hospital. It』s so old we can knock it over with a hoe!」    
Got it? A VA hospital so old you can knock it over with a hoe. And that gives us  
viejo. (Viejo is stressed on the next to last syllable: vi-E-jo; in our code, v-A-hoe.)    
Readers of much skepticism and little faith will worry that spinning such an  
involved yarn to capture one word is less productive than spending that same amount of  
time simply repeating the word to yourself over and over again. Wrong. The yarn, like a  
dream, takes much longer to tell or read than it does to imagine. And you』ll quickly see  
for yourself how helpful the yarn is when it comes time to retrieve the word and use it.    
As you continue now through further demonstrations of this technique, try to  
challenge the examples. See if you can think of better ones. A 「better」 one is simply one  
that works better for you.    
We』re going to swing headlong now into dozens of sample 「lassos,」 associations  
designed to rope your target word and bring it obediently to your feet, never again to part.  
Ignore the fact that many of the examples that follow teach words in languages you』re not  
trying to learn. Never mind, I tell you, never mind! Learn the system and you will use it  
happily and effectively ever after in the language of your choice.    
The French word for 「anger」 is colere, pronounced cole-AIR.    
Strange, we associate anger with heat. We say 「in the heat of anger」, but when  
someone is angry at us, we say he』s 「cold,」 「chilly,」 「giving us the cold shoulder.」 It』s  
not too much of a leap to imagine an angry person radiating his anger, spilling it off in all  
directions, in the form of cold air. You hope he』s not angry, but when you enter his  
office, you know your hopes were in vain because you can feel the colere, the 「col』 air」  
(cole』-AIR).    
The Russian word for 「house」 is dom, pronounced dome. Imagine your amazement  
upon landing in Moscow and seeing all the houses with dome type roofs. Or imagine  
marveling at how domestic the Russian men are.    
The Italian word for 「chicken」 is pollo, pronounced exactly like the English 「polo」  
(PO-lo). Imagine your Italian host urging you to join him for an unbelievable spectacle.  
An Italian impresario with a gift for animal training has staged the world』s first polo    
 
match between teams of chickens! You』re thrilled that you』re going to be able to go back  
to Gaffney, South Carolina, and tell your friends you saw chickens playing polo!    
The Italian word for 「wife」 is moglie, pronounced MOLE-yay. Imagine you』re a man  
about to get married and you get a friendly tip from an indiscreet clergyman that your  
bride to be is known to have a strange animal as a pet and fully intends to bring that  
animal into your home after the nuptials.    
You』re torn! It』s too late to call off the marriage. All the relatives have been invited  
and the paperwork is all in. Besides, you love her. You decide to barrel forward and hope  
for the best.    
As the organ plays and the preacher intones the vows, all you can think of is, 「What  
kind of animal is it? Is it a lion? Is it a tiger? Is it a slick and sneaky snake? A giraffe?」    
When the two of you arrive at your threshold after the honeymoon, the suspense  
ends. She brings forth a pleasant little cage containing a cute, furry little creature.    
「This is my pet mole,」 she says. 「He』s going to live with us.」    
You cry forth your relief. 「Hooray!」 you shout. 「It』s only a mole. It』s only a mole!」  
you cheer, 「Yay!」    
It』s only a mole-yay. Your wife』s secret animal is nothing more than a mole,  
therefore, 「Yay!」 「Wife」 equals MOLE-yay.         
WAIT A MINUTE!         
An enemy, a skeptic, even a queasy ally at this point could say, 「Wait a minute. I』m  
trying to learn a language. I』m not sure I want to walk around with a headful of images of  
wives who keep moles, chickens that play polo, angry people emitting cold air, and VA  
hospitals you can knock over with a hoe!」    
You won』t! One beauty of the system is, the association that helps you capture the  
word falls away and disintegrates. Once you』ve learned the words, the 「crutch」  
obligingly disappears.    
A common form of the verb 「to speak」 in Hebrew is medaber, pronounced meda- 
BEAR. There it is: you were walking through the newly planted forests of Israel and  
suddenly you 「med」 a bear who could speak!    
In Indonesian, 「movie screen」 is lajar, pronounced almost exactly like 「liar」 (LI- 
ar). Easy. The man is rapidly winning the woman』s heart in the movie, but you don』t  
wish him well because he』s such a lajar!    
「Horse」 in Russian, transliterated into English script, is lo-shod, pronounced almost  
exactly like LAW-shod. You try to bring your own horse with you into the Soviet Union,  
but at the border the Soviet customs officer tells you Sorry, he』d like to accommodate  
you, but your horse doesn』t have horseshoes and, according to Soviet law, all horses must  
be shod.    
「Horse」 equals LAW-shod.    
The Greek word for 「grape」 in English transliteration is stafilya, pronounced sta- 
FEEL-ya.    
You』re in a Greek vineyard in the mountains near Albania. You see the most  
luscious grape you』ve ever laid eyes on. As you reach for it, the air is split with a squeaky  
voice screaming 「Don』t touch me!」    
 
「I』m sorry,」 you sputter, retreating in shock and shame. 「I wasn』t going to eat you.  
It was just to FEEL you (jus』 sta-FEEL-ya).」    
Grape equals sta-FEEL-ya.    
The Serbo-Croatian word for 「lunch」 is ru..ak, pronounced almost exactly like RUE- 
chuck. You』re having lunch in a restaurant in Yugoslavia. The waiter overhears you  
making a political remark he doesn』t appreciate, so he throws you out bodily. Never one  
to go quietly, you pick yourself up out of the gutter, dust yourself off, and, just before  
you head for the American Embassy to protest, you shake your first at the waiter through  
the window and vow he』ll rue the day he chucked you out while you were having lunch.    
「Lunch」 equals RUE-chuck.    
「Plate」 in Indonesian is piring, pronounced exactly like the English 「peering」  
(PEER-ing).    
Your Indonesian restaurant experience is a bit more pleasant than the one in  
Yugoslavia. You walk in and find yourself suddenly becalmed by the serenity of the  
dining room. All the Indonesians seem to have their heads bowed in prayer. You ask the  
headwaiter if you』ve interrupted some sort of religious service.    
「Not at all,」 he assures you. 「They』re not praying. We just got our new plates with  
mirrored surfaces and they』re all peering at themselves to see how they look!」    
「Plate」 equals PEER-ing.    
The Farsi word for 「cheaper」 transliterated into English is arzontar, pronounced  
our-zone-TAR.    
The hotel in Tehran is filled, but the clerk tells you it』s a warm night and he』d be  
happy to rent you sleeping space on the roof. You』re delighted to learn you』re paying  
only half what the other roof sleepers are paying, until you get to your designated spot on  
the roof, at which point you exclaim to your spouse, 「Now I see why our spot is cheaper.  
All the other tourists are sleeping on those nice ceramic tiles. Our zone, the spot assigned  
to us, however, is tar!」    
「Cheaper」 equals our-zone-TAR.    
「Potato」 in German is kartoffel, pronounced exactly like cart-AW-ful.    
You buy potatoes from a cart and they turn out to be awful. 「Potato」 equals cart- 
AW-ful.    
Stop right here! Do you remember the Spanish word for 「old?」 Or the French word  
for 「anger,」 the Italian word for 「wife,」 the Serbo-Croatian word for 「lunch,」 or the  
Indonesian word for 「movie screen?」    
When we display this system of word capturing at seminars for the Learning  
Annex, there』s a collective gasp when, after spelling out an association to capture the  
tenth word, we suddenly stop and ask how many can recall word number one, four, and  
so on. At no point did we suggest that the students try to recall the words used as  
examples as we laid out the system. When they see that almost everybody recalls every  
single one of them anyhow, the students realise this system contrasts well with the kind  
of rote learning they』d tried earlier. One grateful participant exclaimed, 「This system  
teaches you words you』re not even trying to learn. The old way doesn』t teach you no  
matter how hard you try!」         
The Almosters         
 
The skeptic has one shot left before he』s wiped out by the power of the method. He can,  
at this point, say, 「Hold it! Every word you』ve used to demonstrate the system so far falls  
much too neatly into our lap – liar, mole-yay. It』s a setup. It』s not real. Very few words  
will cooperate with the system once you tackle the real world!」    
And he』s right! The words we』ve been subjecting to the memory system so far are  
automatics. They fall right into your lap with self suggesting images. Only a small  
percentage of words will fall into the system as facilely as the automatics. More, many  
more than you imagine, will fit automatically into the system, but far from enough to  
conquer another language. Never mind! Behind the words that fit neatly into the system  
are many times that number of words that, while fitting nowhere nearly as neatly, can  
nonetheless take you so close to the target word that true memory can easily complete the  
job. We call those words almosters. Of our four groups – automatics, almosters,  
toughies, and impossibles – the almosters make up by far the single biggest category.    
Let』s demonstrate.         
The Chinese word for 「lobster」 is transliterated as low-shah, pronounced very  
much like LOAN-shark. If you imagine that lobster is so expensive you need a loan shark  
to negotiate a lobster lunch, true memory will easily putt you from loan-shark to low- 
shah.    
Shrimp in Indonesian is gambiri, pronounced gam to rhyme with 「Tom」 followed  
by 「beery」 (gam-BI-ri). You complain to your waiter in Indonesia that the chewing gum  
he served you tastes awfully beery. He advises you it』s not chewing gum, it』s shrimp.  
Your putt will take you from GUM-beery to GAM-beery.    
The Serbo-Croatian word for 「spoon」 is kasika, pronounced KASH (to rhyme with  
「gosh」)-ee-kah.    
You want to get a spoon in Belgrade. They send you outside the hotel to a cash- 
and-carry to get a spoon if you want one.    
Or if you』re familiar with the Eastern grain called kasha (buckwheat groats), you  
can imagine dipping you spoon into a bowl of kasha in the back seat of your car. True  
memory will carry you from kasha-car to KASH-ee-ka.    
「Spoon,」 then, equals KASH-ee-ka.    
The Italian word for 「day」 is giorno, pronounced JUR (as in 「jury」)-no. You』re  
eagerly awaiting the outcome of a legal action, but the jury has been tied up all day with  
no verdict. Even stronger would be the notion of eagerly awaiting the outcome of the trial  
and learning that the whole day went by without the jury even showing up! All day and  
jury no.    
「Day」 equals JUR-no.    
「Humid」 in Farsi is martoob, pronounced mar (as in 「marshal」)-TOOB (as in  
「tube」). It』s so dry in Central Iran that in order to provide comfortable humidity in your  
room, the maritime authorities arranged to bring water in through a tube.    
True memory will easily let you lop off all but the first syllable of 「maritime」 and  
change the vowel from the a as in 「maritime」 to a as in 「marshal」 so that humidity equals  
mar-TOOB.    
「Banana」 in Indonesian is pisang, pronounced PEA-song, the second syllable  
rhyming with the cong in 「conga」. You』d long heard of jungle magic in the outer islands  
of Indonesia, but you never really believed it until you went to the local grocer looking    
 
for bananas. You don』t see bananas anywhere. You ask if he has any bananas. Sure, he  
says, plenty. 「Excuse me,」 you say, 「I don』t see any.」 Be patient, he begs you, until he  
finishes with a customer.    
When it』s your turn he asks you how many bananas you want. You reply, half a  
dozen. He then takes six peas and sings them a mysterious little song. Before your  
bewildered eyes, they turn into bananas! The peas that were sung to became bananas.    
Your only putt is to make the final vowel sound like the o in 「conga.」    
So 「banana」 equals PEA-song.    
The Spanish word for 「to iron」 is planchar, pronounced plan (to rhyme with  
「Don」)-CHAR (as in 「charcoal」). The hotel in Madrid has an excellent reputation, with  
only a single and rather bizarre lapse. Apparently a maid with too much seniority to be  
fired has a habit of leaving the iron on the backside of the trousers so long it leaves burn  
marks the size of the iron itself smack across both buttocks.    
You have no choice. Your pants need ironing and you』ve got to take your chances.  
To improve your odds you gingerly approach the concierge and say, 「 Excuse me, sir.  
Could you please find out if the maid plans to iron these pants correctly or if she plans to  
char them?」 Your putt is to carry the plan sound from one rhyming with 「tan」 over to  
one rhyming with 「Don.」    
「To iron」 equals plan-CHAR.    
The Indonesian word for 「donkey」 is keledai, pronounced almost exactly like 「call  
it a day」 without the it. That』s what donkeys in hot climates are reputed to want to do  
after carrying their loads, and that』s what we』ll do now with this particular series of  
examples.         
Un-American Sounds         
So far we』ve shied away from words containing sounds that don』t exist in English. The  
real world won』t be so protective.    
「Un-American」 sounds are exaggerated as an obstacle to progress in most  
languages. I say that not because it』s unimportant to master the sounds correctly, but  
because most of them will enter your repertoire automatically with practice. The trilled r  
in Spanish, the French r that sounds as though it issues from inside the pituitary gland,  
the half-sh half-guttural in German, the double consonant in Finnish, the many umlauted  
u』s and a』s and o』s in the various European languages will all be explained in your  
grammars, and better than explained on your cassettes: they』ll be pronounced.    
Many languages carry so many markings and so many different kinds of markings  
over and under certain of their letters you may be intimidated. Almost all of them are  
empty threats; despite their sinister looking foreignness, they don』t convey any sounds  
we don』t have in English.    
The two dots over certain a』s in Swedish simply tell you that particular letter is  
pronounced as the first a in 「accurate.」 Without the dots, it』s the a in 「father.」 There』s no  
need to run from the Norwegian o with a line slicing diagonally down through it: the first  
e sound in 「Gertrude」 is close enough. Languages with the double consonant spend far  
too much time warning us Americans that this is something strange to us. It is not  
strange. We have double consonants too, maybe not inside the same word, but definitely  
inside the same phrase.    
 
We pronounce the last sound of the first word and the first sound of the last word in  
「late train.」 We don』t say 「lay train.」 So much for the frightening double consonant.    
We』ll make no attempt here to teach you the 「click」 sounds of some of the  
languages in South Africa or the larynx twisting sounds of the Georgian language spoken  
in Soviet Georgia that actually sounds like paper ripping inside the speaker』s throat.  
Those sounds are unrepeatable for most Americans and the languages in which they  
appear are mercifully obscure.    
There is really only one sound that doesn』t exist in English that we』re obliged to  
learn well, and that』s the guttural common in Hebrew, Arabic, Russian, Dutch, and  
several other languages.    
Most textbooks are notoriously weak in conveying that sound. They know they』re  
committing consumer fraud when, as they frequently do, they merely advise the  
American student to 「approximate the ch sound in the German name 『Bach』 or the final  
sound in the Scottish word 『Loch.』」    
However, 「Bach」 is not pronounced bak. 「Loch」 is not pronounced lock.  
「Chanukah」 is not pronounced Ha-na-ka. The trick is to learn how to make the real  
sound.    
The best method, though perhaps inelegant, is to imagine that you』re about to say  
the plain old h sound, and suddenly you feel a terrible tickle in the middle of your throat.  
The original h sound then becomes lost in all the other powerful things you now do.  
Clear your throat violently to eject the irritant causing that tickle. You will then have the  
「Chanukah」 sound, the 「Bach」 sound, the 「Loch」 sound, the 「chutzpah」 sound.    
That sound has no natural parents in the English language. It』s up for adoption.  
Stop and think what image comes easily to your mind that can make you hear that sound.  
Don』t be afraid to exaggerate it. Then tone it down. Dry it out. It will soon be as  
serviceable and comfortable as the sounds you grew up with.         
Gender         
The Harry Lorayne method of remembering the gender of nouns in foreign languages  
makes you feel downright foolish for not having thought of it yourself!    
In some languages you have to remember the gender of nouns in order to adjust the  
articles or the endings of the adjectives that go with them. All the Romance languages –  
Spanish, French, Italian, Protugese, Romanian, etc. – have masculine and feminine  
gender. Usually, but far from always, you can figure which is which by the word』s  
ending: o for masculine, a for feminine. French, however, conceals gender clues with  
noun endings as unrevealing as battlefield camouflage. German and Russian have  
masculine, feminine, and neuter nouns. The Scandinavian languages call their two noun  
genders 「common」 and 「neuter,」 as does Dutch. Chinese, Japanese, Indonesian,  
Hungarian, and Finnish, like English, have no noun genders.    
How do we remember whether the French noun for 「train,」 also spelled train, is le  
train (masculine) or la train (feminine)? It happens to be masculine, le train. Imagine not  
merely a train that has no women passengers, but a train that doesn』t allow women  
passengers! The men prefer it that way. In hot weather, when the air conditioning fails,  
they sit around in their underwear. Feminists are outraged, but the Supreme court keeps  
postponing the case. Men』s magazines litter the aisles. There are twice as many men』s    
 
rooms as necessary because there are no ladies』 rooms. Once the train screeched to a halt  
between stations and an alarm sounded. It seems a band of militant women tried to board  
the train and hijack it. They were eventually beaten back, before the men in the club car  
even had to put their pants back on.    
Le train; masculine.    
The French word for 「cafe」 is le cafe; masculine. You could either confect another  
all male scenario for a cafe similar to the one you did for the train. Or imagine a  
masculine name emblazoned over the entrance – something like the Macho Cafe or the  
Rambo Cafe.    
Le cafe; masculine.    
「Hour」 in French is l』heure; feminine. Occasionally you get a gift like this one.  
Heure is pronounced very much like her without the h.    
L』heure; feminine.    
「Nose」 in French is le nez; masculine.    
The members of which sex break their noses playing football and hockey, boxing,  
wrestling, and fighting with wise guys who insult their dates?    
Le nez; masculine.    
「Night」 in French is la nuit; feminine.    
Who ever heard of a 「man of the night?」    
La nuit; feminine.    
「Ticket」 in French is le billet; masculine.    
Always look for opportunities to incorporate a memory hook for the gender as you  
capture the word itself. Billet is pronounced bee-yay, almost exactly like the letters B.A.  
as in Bachelor of Arts. If 「bachelor」 doesn』t have a sufficiently strong male connotation  
to you, imagine a giant male bumble bee buzzing around.    
Le billet; masculine.    
「Train station」 in French is la gare; feminine.    
Shall we imagine women waiting for their homebound commuting husbands at the  
train station? Not a good idea. You may forget whether the waiting women or the  
expected husbands are the star of the association. How about hundreds of women waiting  
for one man, pouncing upon him and fighting over him as he unsuspectingly steps off the  
train?    
La gare; feminine.    
「Church」 in French is l』eglise; feminine.    
Imagine an angry mob of French women storming a church in France, demanding  
that women be allowed into the Catholic priesthood.    
L』eglise; feminine.    
Let this one be a lesson to you. 「Mustache」 in French is la moustache; feminine!    
Imagine the circus lady with a mustache, or a new French wine that causes women  
to grow mustaches, or a little girl asking her mother if she can ever have a mustache.    
La moustache; feminine.    
Some languages have neuter gender too. Try to come up with associations that  
suggest icy impersonality.    
「House」 in German is das Haus; neuter.    
Imagine a house so cold and unappealing it couldn』t have possibly been graced by  
man or woman for years. No one lives there or would ever conceivably want to.    
 
Das Haus; neuter.    
「Pen」 in Russian is pero, pronounced pee-RAW. What could be more sexless than a  
pea that』s raw?    
Pero; neuter.         
Reinforcement         
You now have a brand new 「closet,」 a foreign language vocabulary memory system that  
lets you hang up new words as if they were new clothes. The system just presented will  
work even better for you if you keep a few tips in mind.    
Every example given above is clean in word, deed, and thought. Every one could  
have been presented from the stage in Yadkinville, North Carolina, YMCA during  
Foreign Language Week. I refuse to do any dirty writing, so you have to do some dirty  
thinking (if you will) to get maximum benefit from the system.    
The more vivid, in fact, the more vulgar, your associations are, the more readily  
they will probably come to mind. Feel free, in your mental imagery, to take clothes off.  
Get people naked. Get everybody into bed, in the tub, swinging from vines, or making  
nominating speeches immersed in bubbling Romanian mud. Get them wherever you need  
them so that the association you want is readily retrievable. X-rated images come readily  
to mind, even to the minds of nice people. Make your associative images lurid and  
unforgettable.    
We』ve refrained in our model examples from using names and places to buttress our  
associations. In a book or a class, we can』t. Except for famous figures and places we all  
know in common, names and places don』t mean the same things to everybody. As  
individuals, however, we can haul off and use any and every proper name we know,  
whether from our personal lives or from stage, screen, radio, video, song, literature, and  
legend.    
Does the foreign word demand the sound – or any part of the sound – of a Harry, an  
Edna, a Philip, an Art, a Harold, a Doreen, a Billy, a Lance? If that name belongs to  
someone you actually know, your associations will come to you more rapidly and last  
longer.    
Did you grow up around a Reidsville, a Colfax, a Burlington, a Charlotte, a Haw  
River, or a Mt. Pisgah? Your associations with the foreign words can be enriched by  
place names that sounds like or almost like your target words. You don』t actually have to  
have those places in your biography, so long as you know them and can visualise them  
and use them as lassos to haul in and hog tie similar sounding words. I』ve never been to  
Nantucket, but when attacking the Indonesian word for 「tired」 (NAN-tuk), I imagine  
getting so tired on my initial visit to Nantucket that I collapse into bed exhausted shortly  
after lunch.    
Yet another asset to you is the body of words you already know in another foreign  
language, or even in the language you』re learning. Those who know many languages may  
conquer a four syllable word by bringing in sounds from four different languages. This is  
a classic case of the rich getting richer. Every new word you learn is one more potential  
hook for grabbing still newer words.    
Don』t fight to forge a winning association. If at first you don』t succeed, try, try  
again. Then give up! Not all words can be forced into the system, and you』re better off    
 
not wasting good language learning time trying to mash an ill fitting shoe onto  
Cinderella』s sister』s foot. Over ninety percent will fit, automatically, neatly, or after some  
effort. The others, the holdouts, will have to be learned by old familiar rote learning.    
Don』t forget: make your associations vivid, even if that means making them vulgar.    
You』ll find that so many truly comical cartoons will dance through your head as  
you craft your associative images, you』ll find yourself constantly having to explain  
「What』s so funny?」 to native speakers who wonder what』s so hilarious about those  
ordinary words they』re teaching you in their language!    
                          
The Plunge                   
Talk!         
Americans feel, with justification, that we』re handicapped when it come to learning other  
languages. Smaller countries with lots of borders and lots of strange languages on the  
other side offer more opportunities to absorb other languages than a gigantic United  
States bounded by the world』s two largest oceans and only two land neighbours, the  
larger one speaking, for the most part, the same language we do.    
Admittedly, it』s hard to find a Dutchman who doesn』t speak four or five languages,  
a Swiss who doesn』t speak at least three, or a Finn, a Belgian, or a Hong Kong Chinese  
who doesn』t speak at least two. Norwegians, Swedes, and Danes subject us to the  
humiliation of speaking fluent English ot each other just to be polite when Americans are  
present.    
Those peoples are not kissed by tongues of flame that render them more intelligent  
than Americans. They』re simply positioned better by geography and history when it  
comes to acquiring more than one language.    
Americans, however, hold one high card that too frequently goes unplayed. We』re  
gregarious. We』re extroverts. Some say it contemptuously. Some say it admiringly. But  
those who know us best agree that we Americans are the only people in the world who  
enjoy speaking another language badly!    
The typical European would sooner invite you to inspect his bedroom fifty seconds  
after waking up than speak a language he doesn』t speak well. Most people in the world  
are shy, embarrassed, even paralysed when it comes to letting themselves be heard in  
languages they speak less than fluently. An American may master a foreign language to  
the point where he considers himself fluent. A European, however, who speaks a  
language equally well and no better will often deny he speaks it at all!    
Give an American a word in another language and he』s in action. Give him a phrase  
and he』s in deeper action. Give him five phrases and he』s dangerous. Take that American  
trait and exemplify it.    
Talk. Go ahead and talk!    
 
Head into your target language like a moth to the flame, like a politician to the vote.  
Is the gentleman you』ve just been introduced to from France? And is French the language  
you happen to be studying? Then attack.    
Don』t you dare offer a lame chuckle as you explain in English that you』re trying to  
learn French but you』re sorry, you』re not very good at it yet. That』s like giggling and  
telling the mugger who ambushes you in an alley that you』re learning karate but sorry,  
you』re not very good at it yet.    
It』s okay to tell him you』re just a beginner, but tell him in French. Learn enough  
utility phrases in whatever language you』re studying to profit from every encounter.  
Comb through your phrase book (the Berlitz For Travellers series is excellent) and make  
it your priority to learn phrases such as 「I don』t speak your language well,」 「Do you  
understand me?」, 「Please speak more slowly,」 「Please repeat,」 「How do you say that in  
your language?」, 「Sorry, I don』t understand,」 and others that together can serve as your  
cornerstone and launching pad.    
Most phrase books offer too few of these 「crutch」 phrases. When you meet your  
first encounter, pull out pen and pad and fatten your crutch collection. Learn how to say  
things such as, 「I』m only a beginner in your language but I』m determined to become  
fluent,」 「Do you have enough patience to talk with a foreigner who』s trying to learn your  
language?」 「I wonder if I』ll ever be as fluent in your language as you are in English,」 「I  
wish your language were as easy as your people are polite,」 and 「Where in your country  
do you think your language is spoken the best?」 Roll your own alternatives. You』ll soon  
find yourself developing what comedians call a 「routine,」 a pattern of conversation that  
actually gives you a feeling of fluency along with the inspiration to nurture that feeling  
into fruition.    
Hauling off and speaking the language you』re studying versus merely sitting there  
knowing it makes the difference between being a business administration professor and a  
multimillionaire entrepreneur.    
It』s time to apply the parable of the Parrot.    
A man looking for an anniversary present for his wife after fourteen years of  
marriage found himself in front of a pet shop. In the window was a parrot, not  
particularly distinguished in size or plumage, but the price tag on that parrot was a  
whopping seven thousand dollars because that parrot spoke, unbelieveably, fourteen  
different languages.    
That was more than the man intended to spend but he figured, 「Fourteen years,  
fourteen languages!」 So he bought it.    
He went home, mounted the parrot』s perch in the kitchen, and then realised he』d  
forgotten the birdseed. He ran back to the pet shop, bought the birdseed, and then ran  
back home, hoping to have everything in readiness before his wife got home.    
Alas, she』d already returned, and when he appeared she flung herself upon him in  
sizzling affection, shouting, 「Darling! What a marvellous anniversary present! You  
remembered how much I love pheasant. I』ve got him plucked. I』ve got him slit. I』ve got  
him stuffed. He』s in the oven and he』ll be ready in about fifty minutes.」    
「You』ve got him what?」 cried he. 「You』ve got him where? That was no pheasant,」  
stormed the husband. 「That was a parrot, and that parrot cost seven thousand dollars  
because that parrot spoke fourteen languages!」    
「So,」 replied his wife, 「why didn』t he say something?」    
 
And indeed, why don』t you?              
Put it in Writing         
We don』t know if a peacock is impressed when he sees himself in full display in a mirror.  
We do know that you and I are impressed with ourselves when we behold something  
we』ve written in a foreign language.    
Try it. If you do nothing more than copy an exercise from your grammar book onto  
a piece of paper in your own handwriting, you』ll enjoy looking at it. You become like a  
kindergarten child so enraptured with his paint smearings that he can』t wait to take them  
home to Mommy and Daddy.    
That』s strange, childish, egotistic – and supremely helpful when you』re learning  
another language. Go ahead and write. If you can write letters and cards to someone who  
speaks that language, so much the better. If you can write your dinner preferences for the  
waiter in an ethnic restaurant, do so. As soon as you feel sufficiently advanced, write a  
note to the editor of the foreign publication you』re learning to read and tell him how  
helpful it is. Write a letter to the ambassador of a country that speaks your target  
language and congratulate him on representing a culture sufficiently appealing to make  
you want to learn his language.    
Carry a special little notebook with you at all times so you can jot down your new  
verbal acquisitions if you happen to meet native speakers of your target language.    
As a student of Chinese I used to experience a high energy lift by writing the  
Chinese characters I』d learned on a blank piece of paper, preferably in red ink. I still get a  
kick doodling Chinese characters, randomly or in coherent sentences, on the margins of  
the newspaper I』m carrying or in the blank spaces on the display ads.    
Write! Conquer and consolidate by writing. The ability to understand a word when  
it』s spoken or written, to use that word correctly with good pronunciation, and to write it  
correctly makes you the battlefield commander of that word.         
Knowing         
Jack Benny was one comic who remained beloved, even by his peers, despite his well  
known inability to come up with original material.    
Once at a Hollywood roast when another comic laced into him with a devastating  
salvo that demanded a retort in kind, Benny won the moment by pausing and then saying,  
「You』d never get away with that if my writers were here.」    
Cute for Jack Benny at a roast, but not really anything we can borrow. When you』re  
in language action and you stumble and lapse into uhs and ahs while the native speaker is  
patiently hoping you』ll come through, it doesn』t do to say, 「I』d never be in this fix if I  
had my dictionary and phrase book with me.」    
Everybody who』s ever tried to master a foreign language knows the frustration of  
needing the right word or phrase, knowing that you know it, but being utterly unable to  
come up with it at the moment. Just as golfers sometimes break their clubs in frustration,  
at some point you』ll want to smash your cassette player and throw your books into a  
shredder. You』ve mastered a neat set of phrases; they flow glibly off your tongue; you    
 
sing them in the shower, repeat them as you dress, review them as you put on your coat –  
and suddenly all recollection vanishes in a poof when you run into a friend five minutes  
later who happens to be with a native speaker of the language you』re learning and you try  
to remember how to say 「Pleased to meet you.」    
Having the revolver is one thing. Drawing it quickly is quite another. To take set  
piece knowledge you』ve acquired and have it pop up automatically as instinct under real  
game conditions calls for a whole separate discipline.    
Coaches stage scrimmages that simulate real game conditions as closely as possible.  
Pilots can now train in complex simulators that use some elements of computer games to  
achieve the effect of genuine flight. You, the language learner, can play little discipline  
games that will make your knowledge more readily retrievable in live language action.    
First of all, why wait for the real life foreign language encounter to spring into  
retrieval practice? As you go through the motions of daily life, ask yourself, 「What  
would I be saying here in the language I』m studying?」 How would you greet the person  
headed toward you? What would you say to the friend she introduces you to? How would  
you thank her? How would you tell her 「You』re welcome」 or not to bother or would she  
please hand you the fork? It』s fun and helpful to dub everyday situations in the language  
you』re learning.    
If you come up short in your practice with words and phrases you』ve already  
learned, jot them down on a pad and look them up when you get back to your books.    
As you review your cassettes, try to come up with the foreign word during the  
pause before the next piece of English. Put artificial pressure on yourself: 「Can I come up  
with the expression before I hear the next word on the cassette?」 Or if you』re listening as  
you』re walking, 「Can I come up with it before I get to that sign, that lamppost, the  
corner, the curb?」 Victory is being able to take an entire cassette of what were recently  
nonsense syllables to you and throw back the foreign equivalents without hesitation.    
You』ll be glad you didn』t smash your tools when your friend approaches you by  
surprise to introduce you to her friend from a country that speaks the language you』re  
learning and you respond with a crisp, correct 「Pleased to meet you」 in that language!         
Commit Language Larceny         
There are interesting lessons coiled up inside ordinary greetings in different languages.    
The Estonian greeting Kuidas (k.si k.ib) literally means 「How does your hand  
walk?」 An old Chinese greeting is Chr bao le, mei lo? which means, 「Have you had food  
yet?」 – no small achievement in the China of some periods. A charming greeting in  
Yiddish is 「Zug mir a shtikel Toireh,」 which means 「Teach me a piece of Torah,」 the  
Torah being the five books of Moses and the holiest document in the Jewish religion.    
Language learners can use the spirit of that last one to good advantage.    
When you encounter a native speaker of your target language, and when you start a  
conversation in that language, three things are certain. You will be stuck for words you  
need but don』t know. He will use words you don』t understand. And you will make  
mistakes. Get into the habit of exploiting those moments to the hilt!    
When you don』t know a word, ask him for it. When you don』t understand a word he  
uses, ask him what it means. Ask him to do you the favour of correcting your mistakes.  
You may not have much luck with that latter request; he may be too polite or too    
 
impressed that you』re making an effort in his language to criticise you. If you feel he』s  
letting your mistakes slide by, pick a fairly long sentence and ask him to help you  
hammer out your mistakes in just that one sentence. Write that sentence down on one of  
your blank flash cards. Ask him to check it again. Milk the moment. As the Latin goes,  
Carpe diem!    
Don』t ever enter into anything as precious as a conversation in your target language  
with a native speaker and leave knowing no more than when you started. You』ve got a  
repertoire in that language. He has a larger one. Reach in and help yourself.         
At No Extra Cost         
You may think you have a good idea precisely how your life will improve once you』ve  
mastered your target language. You』re wrong. It will be much better than you think.    
Unexpected good things happen to you when you learn even a little of the other  
guy』s language. A chapter detailing some of those things may seem like preaching to the  
choir, when you consider that anybody likely to be reading this has already decided he  
wants to learn. So what? Who more than the members of the choir deserve the  
inspiration?    
All the case histories that follow were culled and corroborated by members of the  
Language Club who were asked to be alert to all the nice little extras that come your way  
when you speak another language. Many of them happened to me personally and  
continue to happen almost daily.    
In New York and some other major cities a huge percentage of the cab drivers are  
from Haiti. Try this, just to get a taste of the power of another language. If your driver is  
Haitian, lean forward and say (phonetically), 「Sa (rhymes with 「ma」) pass (「pasta」  
without the 「ta」) SAY (as in the English 「say」), pa-PA (「papa,」 but accented on the last  
syllable). Sort those sounds out and try it. 「Sa paSAY paPA?」 It means something like the  
French Comment .a va? (「How are you?」), but it』s not French. It』s his native Haitian  
Creole slang and he may never before have heard that utterance from the lips of a non- 
Haitian.    
That one line is guaranteed to get you reactions ranging from a long, slow smile to a  
cheery 「Where did you learn that?」 to loud and joyous laughter to the exclamation, 「You  
must know Haiti well!」    
Don』t get the idea that Haitians are the only ones susceptible to the charm of  
hearing a few words of their language. They just may be more demonstrative than most  
in showing it. Romanian cab drivers have turned off the metre and given me a free ride in  
return for my 「Good morning」 in Romanian. A Soviet Georgian cab driver refused to  
take my money and invited me to Sunday dinner at his home, one of the tastiest treats and  
most interesting evenings I』ve ever enjoyed. An Indonesian cab driver screamed – that』s  
all, just screamed – upon hearing 「Thank you」 in his language.    
I』ve long suspected there』s a memo posted in the kitchen of every Chinese  
restaurant in America instructing all personnel not to let any American who exhibits any  
knowledge of Chinese go unrewarded. Try this experience, just to taste the power.    
The Chinese term for 「chopsticks」 is kwai dze. The first word is pronounced like  
the Asian river the American war prisoners built the bridge over. The second word  
sounds like the ds in 「suds.」    
 
The next time you』re in a Chinese restaurant, smile at the waiter and say 「Kwai  
dze.」 When he brings the chopsticks, smile again and say, 「Shieh, shieh」 (「Thank  
you」). Pronounce that as you should 「she expects,」 making sure you never get as far as  
the x and accentuating the 「she」. The immediate payoffs on this one can range from a  
free plum brandy cocktail at the end of the meal clear over to a stubborn refusal to let you  
pay. The more subtle, and satisfying, payoff is that they will assume you know not only  
the rest of the Chinese language but the Chinese cuisine as well, and they』ll probably  
give you no less than the absolute finest the house can produce every time they see you  
come in.    
Your rewards for knowing even a paltry few words of a language vary in inverse  
proportion to the likelihood that you』ll know any at all. A German baker isn』t likely to  
endorse his whole day』s profit on strudel over to your favourite charity merely because  
you enter his shop with a big 「Guten Tag」 (「Good day」), but an Albanian baker might if  
you enter with 「Tungjatjeta.」 You won』t knock French socks off with a 「Comment  
allez-vous?」 (「How are you?」), but you may set winter gloves flying in Helsinki with a  
correctly pronounced 「(Hyv.. P.iv..)」 (「Good morning」).    
Don』t overdo it. I』ve known cab drivers from obscure countries almost drive off the  
road when they』re surprised with a burst of their native tongue from an American  
passenger, and once I had a Chinese waitress in a Jewish delicatessen (honest!) get so  
rattled when I ordered for our party in Chinese that she messed up our order beyond  
redemption.    
I have many times ignited what looked like spontaneous street festivals by hailing  
groups of people on the sidewalk in the language I heard them speaking. They frequently  
stop, return the greeting, and then start hobnobbing with the people in my group, leading  
to laughs, the exchange of addresses, dates for later on, and, I suspect, even more! I』ve  
never understood the joy of bagging a bird or a deer and watching it fall to the ground.  
My joy is bagging strangers from other countries with the right greeting in the right  
language and watching them come to a halt and become old friends at once.    
The material payoffs of learning foreign languages are many and predictable,  
though perhaps a bit surprising in their scope. In early 1990 a friend told me he was  
looking to fill a job paying $650,000 a year; qualifications: attorney, knowledge of  
Russian, and willingness to relocate to Moscow. I prefer the psychological payoffs of  
studying foreign languages – pleasures so keep you could almost call them spiritual.    
They joy of a true mathematician escalates as he moves from algebra to  
trigonometry to calculus. Likewise, the joy of the true language lover escalates as he  
advances from what I call 「Foreign 1」 to 「Foreign 2.」 Foreign 1 is interpreting or  
translating (interpreters speak, translators write) from your native language to a foreign  
one. Foreign 2 is doing it from one language that』s foreign to you to another one that』s  
foreign to you.    
You are permitted to feel like Superman when you pull off such a feat. You are not  
permitted to act like Superman, nor are you permitted to let on that you feel like  
Superman. You mien should approximate that of a bored New York commuter telling a  
stranger how many stops there are between Grand Central Station and New Rochelle.    
The best Foreign 2 feeling I ever had was interpreting for Finns trying to  
communicate with Hungarians. Finnish and Hungarian are widely hailed as the most  
difficult languages in the world. They』re related to each other, but not in any way that』s    
 
helpful or even apparent. There aren』t five words remotely similar in the two languages,  
and a Hungarian and a Finn can no more understand each other than can a Japanese and a  
Pole.    
I long nurtured a dream of house lights coming up in the theatre. The theatre  
manager comes to centre stage and says, 「Is there a Finnish-Hungarian interpreter in the  
house?」 I wait until he repeats his request louder so that everyone in the theatre will get a  
load of those qualifications. I then, in the fantasy, grudgingly make my presence and, by  
implication, my suitability for the assignment known. I rise and approach whatever  
emergency it is that requires my linguistic talents, while those hundreds of theatre goers  
gasp at their relative inadequacies.    
Something like that actually did light up my life for an evening and then some. I  
was invited by a well known woman broadcaster to join another couple who had invited  
her and a guest to a Madison Square Garden horse show. I』d never dated her before. I felt  
outclassed in the glamour department, and I was uncomfortable as we four wound our  
way through that upper crust crowd looking for our places.    
Suddenly I was spotted by Anna Sosenko, lyricist, writer, theatre producer, and  
dealer in the memorabilia of show business worldwide and down through the ages. Anna  
wrote, among other biggies, the song 「Darling, Je Vous Aime Beaucoup.」    
「Hey, Barry,」 Anna yelled out over the crowd from about twenty rows away. 「Can  
you come by my studio next week? I need you to translate some Ibsen!」    
Remember what that sudden spinach infusion did for Popeye』s biceps in the  
animated cartoons? That』s exactly what happened to my standing in the foursome after  
Anna』s outcry. My date and her friends turned to me. 「Ibsen? You translate Ibsen?  
Where did you learn to translate Ibsen?」    
They may very well not have known what language Henrik Ibsen wrote in. Never  
mind! You don』t have to be absolutely sure which country a prince is a prince of in order  
to show respect, as long as you』re sure he』s a real prince. Likewise, with Anna Sosenko  
doing the yelling, everybody was convinced I could bring Ibsen to life in English.    
                          
Motivations                   
The ads for self study language courses stress the business, travel, cultural, and literary  
advantages of acquiring another language. But what about meeting girls? Or women? Or  
boys? Or men? Why let an old fashioned propriety quash that thoroughly proper, in fact  
praiseworthy, reason to learn another language, namely to enlarge your range of social  
opportunities, to meet people?    
Learning another language to enlarge your opportunity for making new connections  
is fun and rewarding. Financial and professional success have helped people live their  
dreams. So has learning another language!    
There are blonde languages, by the way, and brunette languages. Why be bashful?  
Those partial to blondes are advised to learn Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Finnish,  
German, Dutch, and Hungarian. A good brunette list would include Spanish, French,  
Portuguese, Italian, Serbo-Croatian, Greek, Turkish, Hebrew, and Arabic.    
This advice is not offered flippantly. I find the social motive to learn other  
languages as valid as the commercial, the cultural, or any other. If your motives for  
learning another language are social, I would steer you to the language of a people you  
find maximally attractive with every bit as straight a face as I』d advise those interested in  
importing from Asia to learn Japanese and opera lovers to learn Italian. I would steer you  
to the language of a people you find maximally attractive with every bit as straight a face  
as I』d advise those interested in importing from Asia to learn Japanese and opera lovers  
to learn Italian.    
You are not guaranteed love forevermore, but you are guaranteed novelty status.  
You』ll attract attention in your target community as 「the one who went to the trouble of  
learning our language.」 You』ll be invited, introduced around, and questioned thoroughly  
as to your reasons for studying their particular language. The less popular the language,  
the greater a celebrity you』ll be among its speakers. French is very popular, so you won』t  
have Paris at your feet, we』ve already agreed, even after your best rendered 「Comment  
allez-vous?」, but Norwegians will want to burn arctic moss at your altar when after a  
meal you say 「Takk for maten.」 That means 「Thanks for the food,」 which non- 
Norwegians not only generally don』t know how to say, but also don』t realise it』s  
traditionally said as you leave the table of your host in Norway.    
 
Native English speakers have more to gain from studying other languages than  
anybody else. Honour, love, cooperation, respect, advantage – they all shower down  
upon people in inverse proportion to their need to learn a language.    
English is the most prominent language in the world. The Dutch, as one example,  
all seem to know four or five languages well upon graduation from high school, but (I am  
not trying to diminish their achievement) they have to learn other languages, beginning  
with English, to make their way in the commercial world. You can』t play that game with  
Dutch alone. Languages find their fair rate of exchange as currencies do. We who speak  
English get a lot more credit from the Dutch if we learn Dutch than they get from us just  
because they learned English. And so on around the world.    
Learn that other language now, while there』s still time to enjoy the honours due  
those who don』t have to learn the other guy』s language but choose to do so anyhow. That  
time is rapidly running out. For the very first time in our history Americans are learning  
other languages not out of courtesy but out of necessity. That fact of life is so new that  
it』s not yet apparent to America or the world, so we still have a little more time to bask in  
the admiration of those who had to learn our language and who still believe we simply  
chose to learn theirs.    
Something ennobling happens when you learn to communicate in more than one  
language. And it』s fun to watch the magic flash as you touch your word wand to the ears  
of those who』d never suspect you speak their language. It』s one more way of making  
friends. In big cities you』ll have many chances to find people who speak foreign  
languages.    
But you can』t sally in and ambush strangers in their language even if their accent  
and appearance make it a sure bet. They』re probably proud of their accent free (or nearly  
accent free) English. The best way to avoid insulting them – so they can concentrate on  
loving you when you speak their language – is to say, before you venture one word of  
their language, 「Your accent is beautiful. Are you from England?」    
They will then proudly say, 「No, I』m from Poland」 (or wherever), and they will  
thereupon welcome your overtures.         
Get to Know the Family         
Languages have their own happy surprises. For example, Serbo-Croatian and Bulgarian  
overlap. Learn either one, and at no extra cost you get seventy percent of the other. You  
may want to select a language to learn according to how much bounce it has beyond its  
borders. Languages come in families, and it pays to know which relations might work for  
you.    
Let』s pursue the Serbo-Croatian-Bulgarian connection. They』re related in  
diminishing degrees to all the Slavic languages, which include Russian, Byelorussian,  
Polish, Ukranian, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Macedonian, and Ruthenian. They』re not all  
seventy percent overlapping, but so what? What if they』re only forty, thirty, twenty  
percent overlapping? That』s still like having the shopkeeper hand you extra cloth on a  
second bolt when you thought you』d only bought one bolt of cloth.    
You learn so much Italian when you learn Spanish that it』s a shame not to switch  
over and pursue Italian once your Spanish is adequate. Portugese isn』t far behind, and  
even French, the Romance language least like any of the others, has enough similar    
 
grammatical features and vocabulary to help you conquer all of the other Romance  
languages.    
Hindi and Urdu, the principal languages of India and Pakistan, are virtually the  
same spoken language.    
Dutch is far more than the language of a tiny nation between Germany and the  
English Channel. It』s almost identical to Flemish, which along with French is one of the  
two principal languages of Belgium. Dutch is the foundation of Afrikaans, which along  
with English is a major language of South Africa. And you』ll have no trouble finding  
Dutch speakers all over Indonesia, the old 「Spice Islands」 ruled by Holland for four  
hundred years.    
Get to know the family of the language you』re learning – where it fits in, what other  
languages it will make easier for you to learn later. What doors in what industries will it  
open (for example, Flemish and Yiddish for diamonds, Arabic for oil, Swedish for  
crystal, Italian for fashion)? Over how wide an area is your target language spoken (more  
Chinese speak Chinese outside China than Frenchmen speak French in France)?  
Knowing where your language fits into the world mosaic will offer you countless  
advantages and rewards, and almost certainly the motivation to learn more.    
                          
Language Power    
to the People                   
The many who crave language knowledge in America have risen in rebellion against the  
many who have failed (we could even say refused) to give it.    
Language teaching used to be in the control of 「the faculty,」 a Prussian guard of  
grammarians who taught that after all the conjugations, declensions, irregularities, and  
exceptions were mastered, surely fluency would follow. What followed instead was a  
parade of hapless Americans who, after eight years of good grades, could not go to the  
desk clerk at a hotel in a country whose language they』d studied and ask if they had any  
messages!    
「The faculty」 taught rigidly by the book, the grammar book, and all our desire to  
learn to say useful things and converse were dashed.    
Today foreign languages are no longer 「electives.」 Those suddenly faced with their  
first need to command another language are besieging Berlitz and other commercial  
language schools and buying the Pimsleur cassettes and other self study courses. We, the  
laymen, are picking up our tools – language workbooks, cassette courses, phrase books,  
flash cards – to try to make up for our failure to learn, while all those incredible  
Europeans were learning English in their public schools!    
Two, four, six, eight years of high school and college study in a foreign language,  
and still our American graduates can』t tell whether the man on the radio speaking the  
language they 「learned」 is declaring war or recommending a restaurant!    
Has one single American graduate ever stepped into a job that called for a foreign  
language with nothing more than the language he learned in high school or college? It』s  
not a cruel question. Most Americans can get by on the reading they learned in school.  
And the math. And the history. Why is that when it come to foreign languages our  
graduates have to rush into expensive private instruction to start all over again?    
One hero of language learning in the United States is Dr. Henry Urbanski, professor  
of Russian, former chairman of the department of Foreign Languages of the State  
University of New York at New Paltz, and now director of the Language Immersion  
Institute. Once upon a time Dr. Urbanski』s 「immersion」 heresy would probably have    
 
resulted in his getting banned from university life. Today Urbanski is showered with  
praise and honour.    
His immersion programme defies the language teaching tradition of rote  
regimentation and grammar worship. There are no charts to learn, no homework, no  
drudgery, and no tests. It』s all fun, it emphasises real conversation between teacher and  
students, and it all takes place over a weekend. If Henry Urbanski could have thought of  
any more rules to break, he would have.    
Urbanski』s immersion programme is open to everybody. Those with no educational  
background in languages whatever join with people with graduate degrees in languages  
and men and women of all levels of qualification in between. The programme begins at  
seven P.M. on a Friday for an hour of introduction and orientation. The students then  
break up into small groups in separate rooms and jump into the foreign language under  
the command of dynamic, enthusiastic instructors who keep a high energy Ping-Pong of  
basic conversation going back and forth with all students participating. At ten P.M. Friday  
the classes break and the wise ones go straight to bed without food, wine, or small talk,  
knowing that the routine resumes early Saturday morning.    
Even when classes break for lunch Saturday afternoon there』s no break in the  
language. The groups have lunch together in the language they』re learning. Then they  
return to class and keep on going.    
On Saturday at dusk some of the students begin to report phenomena resembling  
out of body experiences. Urbanski jokes, 「Only when this constant bombardment  
collapses your resistance can the new language come surging in like an angry sea through  
a broken dike.」    
Even the students who were suggesting wine and talk the night before hasten to bed  
in order to meet the dawn on Sunday, the final day. Sessions continue clear up to a late  
lunch, after which there』s a 「graduation」 exercise, whereupon everybody vows to return  
at the next opportunity for immersion in the next highest level of their language.    
Dr. Urbanski wants his immersion students to have fun. Walk down the corridors  
during teaching hours (or follow a group on a 「language hike」 through the mountains  
around New Paltz) and you』ll hear laughter, clapping, singing, and what sound like pep  
rallies in Spanish, French, German, Italian, Russian, and the other languages of the  
weekend.    
「Why make students suffer unnecessarily?」 Urbanski asks. 「Learning a language  
doesn』t have to bring pain and suffering. We believe in providing a nonthreatening  
environment in which students are rewarded for their progress but not punished for their  
errors.」 An immersion graduate added, 「The festival spirit wakes us up, keeps us sharp,  
lubricates the flow of new words, and anesthetises us against the pain of grammar.」    
Urbanski never promises you can go straight from a weekend of foreign language  
immersion to a booth at the United Nations and simultaneously interpret a foreign  
minister』s address. What immersion promises is a more than elementary introduction to  
the language, a good grounding in its words and melodies, the ability to 「defend」  
yourself in that language without help, and a solid base from which you can grow, either  
through self study or more courses. No claim is made that students will be fluent by the  
end of one immersion weekend. 「We teach linguistic survival,」 says Urbanski. 「After a  
few immersion weekends our students can manage in the language.」    
 
The New Paltz Language Immersion Institute has grown from immersion weekends  
on campus to weekends at the nearby Mohonk Mountain House resort and in Manhattan.  
A programme is now under way in Washington, D.C. Anyone desiring information – no  
qualifications necessary – may call the New Paltz Language Immersion Institute at 1- 
800-LANGUAGE.    
Tuition for the weekend ranges from $175 to $250, depending on location. The two  
week summer programme at the New Paltz campus costs $400.    
In the words of one satisfied institute graduate, 「I learned enough to continue to  
learn more!」    
                          
Back to Basics                        
「Send the manager to this table immediately,」 demanded the diner in the restaurant.  
When the manager appeared, the diner railed, 「This is the worst vanilla ice cream I』ve  
ever had.」    
「I』m sorry, sir,」 said the manager. 「That』s not vanilla ice cream. That』s butter  
pecan.」    
「Oh,」 said the customer, suddenly placated. 「For butter pecan, it』s okay.」    
This chapter on the basics of grammar should be read in that spirit.         
「French verb changes are inaudible through the singular of the present tense.」    
「The Spanish auxiliary verb 『to have』 is completely different from the verb 『to  
have』 implying possession.」    
「The Scandinavian languages, Romanian, and Albanian are among the languages  
that place the definitive article after the noun.」    
「Chinese has no case endings or verb inflections, and adjectives do not have to  
agree with nouns.」    
Do you understand all of the above, or most of it? If so, you don』t need this chapter,  
though some of it may come as a welcome refresher. This chapter is offered as catch-up  
for all of you who didn』t pay attention in English class. Now you want to learn another  
language and you realise suddenly that your teacher was right, you were wrong, and here  
you are unable to understand the English you need to take command of another language.    
I, like you, sat smugly through grade school English convinced that ignorance of all  
those silly terms that went zipping by me would never interfere with any of my future  
endeavours. Nothing reforms the student who』s apathetic towards English like a sudden  
desire to learn other languages. I could have learned foreign languages more easily from  
the outset had I sat down to learn just these bare bones I serve you now.    
What follows is a rundown of some of the terms you』ll need to know to advance  
easily through another language. The synopsis may be misprioritised and incomplete, but  
on the other hand it is friendly, nonjudgmental, brief, blunt, and, I hope, helpful.    
                
NOUN         
A noun is a person, place, or thing – either a tangible thing, like a block of ice or a head  
of cattle or your mother in law, or an intangible thing, like a concept or an emotion.         
PRONOUN         
The dictionary tells us that pronouns are words that serve as substitutes for nouns. If  
that』s confusing, ignore it and let』s get right down to the pronouns. In English they are I,  
you, he, she, it, we, they, me, him, her, us, them, my, mine, your, yours, his, hers, its, our,  
ours, their and theirs.    
In addition, we have INTERROGATIVE pronouns (who, what, which) for asking  
questions.    
We also have RELATIVE pronouns (who, whose, which, that) for explaining and  
describing the nouns we use.    
In the sentence 「Who owns that house?」 the pronoun who is used in interrogative  
form. It』s asking a question. In the sentence 「The man who owns that house is nice,」 the  
pronoun who is used in its relative sense. You』re not asking anybody a question, you』re  
identifying the man. 「The man whose house…,」 「The house, which I visited…,」 and  
「The house that I visited…」 all demonstrate the use of relative pronouns.         
VERB         
A verb is an action word – to do, to go, to want, to think. Chances are that any word that  
sounds right after the word to (provided the to doesn』t mean 「toward」 or 「in the direction  
of」) is a verb. English verbs are so consistent (unchanging), it』s easy for the English  
speaker to get overwhelmed when tackling a language whose verbs INFLECT (change  
forms), as all the Romance, the Slavic, and many other languages』 verbs do. When we  
follow a verb through all its forms (I go, you go, he goes, we go, they go, in the present  
tense, past tense, future tense, etc.) we are CONJUGATING that verb. You』ll feel less  
bewildered if you stop to realise that our own English verbs inflect just enough to give  
you the idea of changing forms. The present tense, third person singular form of the  
English verb (the he form) usually adds an s (I give, you give, but he gives).         
INFINITIVE         
An infinitive is a verb in neutral gear. In English the infinitive is the form we talked  
about above – to go, to do, etc. The infinitive form of the verb go is therefore to go. That  
doesn』t tell you who』s going or when he』s going or, in case he』s already gone, when he  
went. The infinitive is just hanging there, ready to express any and all of the above  
possibilities when the proper INFLECTIONS, changes, are applied.    
The gears that neutral infinitives can shift into involve PERSON, NUMBER, and TENSE.  
We』ll tackle them in that order.    
                     
PERSON         
I am FIRST PERSON. You are SECOND PERSON. He, she, or it is THIRD PERSON. The fussbudget  
grammarian wants to blow the whistle right here and remind us that we, you, and they are  
also first, second, and third person. Don』t rush me. We』re getting to it.         
NUMBER         
Number, in English and most other languages, is either SINGULAR or PLURAL. (In Russian  
and other Slavic languages there』s a third one. They have singular, plural, and really  
plural. Be grateful!) I, the first person, am only one individual. Therefore I am first  
person singular. You, by yourself, are second person singular. He, she, and it are third  
person singular.    
We are more than one person; therefore we are first person plural. You, meaning two  
or more of you, are second person plural. Second person singular and second person  
plural in English happen to look and sound identical. That』s not so in all languages. They  
are third person plural. The one English word they covers as many he』s, she』s and it』s as  
anybody can possibly throw at you. Again, not all languages are so obliging!         
TENSES         
Even those who didn』t pay much attention in school shouldn』t have difficulty with tenses.  
I am is PRESENT tense. (To give it its full name and rank we』d have to say I am is the  
present tense, first person singular of the verb to be.)    
You were is PAST tense, or, more fully, the past tense, second person singular (in this  
case it could be plural too) of the verb to be.    
He will be is FUTURE tense, or the future tense, third person singular of the verb to  
be.    
The PERFECT tense is another form of the past tense that expresses not I was but  
rather I have been. (Perfect here just means 「finished.」) This tense is more important in  
English than in many other languages, and more important in French than in English.    
The PAST PERFECT (also called PLUPERFECT) tense is I had been. It takes place before  
the 「regular」 past.    
The IMPERFECT (「unfinished」) tense is I was being, I was walking, I was going,  
doing, etc.    
The CONDITIONAL tense is I would be.    
There are more tenses, and they may vary from language to language, but that』s  
enough to give you the hang of what tenses are.         
AUXILIARIES         
 
As the name suggests, auxiliaries are words that help you accomplish something. In  
English, the verb to have serves as the auxiliary that helps us form the perfect tenses (I  
have been, I had been). The verb to be serves as the auxiliary that helps us form the  
imperfect tense (I was going).                   
NOUN CASES         
Just as ice, water, and steam are merely different forms of the same thing, I, me, my, and  
mine are merely different forms of the same word. You pick the form according to what  
CASE you need. (Yes! You already do this in English.) Let』s advance on case now and  
destroy its mystery before it destroys your enthusiasm.    
Noun (and pronoun) cases turn more people away from learning languages than  
boot camp turns away from joining the marines. And the same reason underlies both.  
Those who』ve been there enjoy boosting their own glory by exaggerating the difficulties  
involved to the intimidated uninitiated.    
「Wait until those drill instructors at Parris Island get a hold of you!」 is essentially  
the same comment as 「Wait until you run into all those noun cases!」 You may recall with  
distaste the trouble you had with Latin』s six noun cases. Russian also has six noun cases.  
Serbo-Croatian has seven. Other languages have even more.    
Anyone studying a language bristling with noun cases knows the sinking feeling of  
leaving warm, shallow water and running into wave after wave of charts showing nouns  
that change their endings for no apparent reason!    
You can ride those waves. Those nouns, in fact, change for very good reasons,  
reasons that are easy to catch on to provided you』re not labouring under the spell of a  
showoff know-it-all who tells you, 「Finnish! Forget it. They have fifteen noun cases in  
the singular and sixteen in the plural!」    
Fortunately, English has just enough of what we call noun cases to prove they』re  
nothing to fear.    
Let』s play with the word house. 「The house is large.」 「The exterior of the house us  
green.」 「Let』s go to the house.」 「I see the house.」 In all of those sentences, the form of  
house remains mercifully (for anybody learning English) the same. If there were any  
reason to strain a point and prove that plain English nouns can have case too, we could  
confect the sentence 「The house』s exterior is green,」 and point out that house』s is the  
genitive case of house.    
To get a fuller example of case, we have to go to our English pronouns. 「I have a  
pen.」 「My pen is good.」 「Give the pen to me.」 「Do you hear me?」    
Look what happened to I as it changed roles in the various sentences. In the  
sentence 「I have a pen,」 I is the subject of the sentence. In the sentence 「My pen is  
good,」 I has changed to my to express the concept of possession. In the sentence 「Give  
the pen to me,」 I becomes the indirect object of the giving, and in the sentence 「Do you  
hear me?」 I becomes the direct object of the verb hear.    
If I wanted to discourage you instead of inspire you, I would say, 「We have now  
met the NOMINATIVE case, the GENITIVE case, the DATIVE case, and the ACCUSATIVE case,  
and we』re all going to stay right here and not come up for air until you can decline (give    
 
me the lineup of) 189 nouns in all those cases in the language you』d like to learn!」  
Instead I say let』s move forward and learn how to say things and read things and  
understand things in the language. You can learn about noun cases and other grammatical  
complexities exactly the way you learned your uncles and aunts when you were a baby –  
one hug, one kiss, one lollipop at a time.    
When we carry the noun through all its cases we say we』re DECLINING that noun.  
Noun cases tip you off to the role of the noun or pronoun in a sentence. Many languages  
need them to tell you who is doing what to whom. Approach them with a good attitude  
and you will feel the wisdom of Mark Twain』s little sermon, 「Fear knocked at the door.  
Faith answered. No one was there.」         
ADJECTIVES         
Adjectives are words that describe nouns. In the phrase 「the green pen,」 green is the  
adjective that describes pen. You』ll encounter some fuss about them because in many  
languages adjectives have to AGREE WITH (appear in the same form as) the nouns they  
MODIFY (refer to). In those languages adjectives must agree with the nouns in gender and  
number (and sometimes case).    
A little Spanish will quickly make it clear. El libro es rojo (「The book is red」)  
shows the adjective rojo (「red」) in masculine singular form to agree with libro (「book」).  
La pluma es roja (「The pen is red」) shows the adjective roja (「red」) in feminine singular  
form to agree with pluma (「pen」). Los libros son rojos (「The books are red」) shows the  
adjective rojos (「red」) in masculine plural form to agree with libros (「books」). Finally,  
Las plumas son rojas (「The pens are red」) shows the adjective rojas (「red」) in feminine  
plural form to agree with plumas (「pens」).         
ADVERBS         
Adverbs describe verbs – they tell how. 「He mastered the easy parts of the language  
easily.」 Easily is the adverb telling how he mastered the easy parts (Easy, of couse, is the  
adjective.)         
PREPOSITIONS         
Prepositions are words that precede nouns and pronouns to form phrases (groups of  
words) that can act as adjectives or adverbs. Prepositions show relationships among  
nouns; they often indicate position or direction, and they are often short words: to, at, by,  
for, with, from, toward, on, over, behind, between, etc.         
DEFINITE ARTICLE         
The definite article in English is the word the.         
INDEFINITE ARTICLE         
 
The indefinite article in English is the word a or an. English has both the definite and  
indefinite article. Some other languages also have both. Some have one but not the other.  
Some have neither.         
SUBJECT-VERB-OBJECT         
Words like these symbolise the grade school 「nerve gas」 which deadens the desire to  
proceed through grammar and parts of speech, and diagramming sentences, and all  
related yawn provokers that once seemed to float too far over our heads ever to zoom  
down and give us discomfort. Those concepts may have seemed like distant enemies in  
the eighth grade when you had no intention of becoming an English teacher, but they』re  
close friends and necessary allies when you』re learning another language.    
Briefly, in the sentence 「He hits the ball,」 the word he is the SUBJECT, hits is the  
VERB, ball is the OBJECT, the DIRECT OBJECT. If we lengthen the sentence to 「He hits the  
ball to him,」 then him is the INDIRECT OBJECT.         
ACTIVE         
The verb is ACTIVE or in the ACTIVE VOICE if the subject is performing the verb action. In  
「He hits the ball,」 the verb hits is in the active voice because the subject he is the one  
(the AGENT) doing the hitting.         
PASSIVE         
The verb is PASSIVE or in the PASSIVE VOICE if the subject receives or is subject to the  
action of the verb. Thus in 「The ball is hit by him」, the subject ball doesn』t do any  
hitting. Rather, it gets hit. Therefore, we say that the verb hit is in the passive voice  
because the subject ball is not performing the action of the verb but is rather having that  
action performed upon it.         
REFLEXIVE         
The verb is reflexive when its action bounces back upon itself. In the sentence 「I dress  
myself,」 the subject I both performs the action and has it performed on itself.         
IMPERATIVE         
The imperative is the command form of the verb. The imperative of the verb to go is go!  
The imperative of the verb to watch is Watch!         
COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE         
Though not as flighty and volatile as verbs and nouns, English adjectives and adverbs  
can』t sit entirely still.    
Good, better, and best are really the same word in escalating degrees. Good is the  
simple, the base form of the adjective. Better is the comparative form. Best is the    
 
superlative form. Good-better-best is an example of an irregular comparative-superlative  
construction. If it were regular, it would be good, gooder and goodest, like the regular  
neat, neater and neatest.    
The comparative and superlative of adverbs in English is formed with more and  
most: 「He progressed rapidly. He progressed more rapidly. He progressed most rapidly.」         
CARDINAL AND ORDINAL NUMBERS         
Cardinal numbers are one, two, three, four, etc. Ordinal numbers are first, second, third,  
fourth, etc.         
FORMS OF ADDRESS         
English is deceptively easy in forms of address. Everybody in second person singular and  
plural is you. Your spouse is you. Your four year old child is you. Your interior decorator  
is you. The President of the United States is you. Your cocker spaniel is you. In almost  
every other language, speakers differentiate, sometimes sharply, between the FAMILIAR  
form of address (French tu, German du) and the FORMAL form (French vous, German Sie).  
The usual rule is that you use the familiar form of address only when addressing (talking  
to) intimates, children, and animals. All others take the formal form.    
There comes a moment in the affairs of humans when someone who started out  
formally as a stranger or casual acquaintance becomes, with time and congeniality, so  
familiar that the formal form of address seems almost stilted and even offish or insulting.  
In some countries – Norway, for instance – the tension is broken by the suggestion Skal  
vi drikke dus? (「Shall we drink to a new era in our friendship?」 one in which we』ll  
address each other as the familiar du rather than the formal De?) That』s a speak-now-or- 
forever-hold-your-peace moment in the relationship. If there』s no objection, the two  
friends take a glass and toast their graduation from formal to familiar with their drinking  
arms intertwined!         
DIMINUTIVES         
A charming trick almost every language has is this 「shrinking」 of someone or something  
you like by the use of diminutives. The diminutive of Charles is Charlie. The diminutive  
of William is Billy. The diminutive of star is starlet. The diminutive of pig is piglet or  
piggy. The Olympics of diminutives is won hands down by the Italians, who have  
literally dozens of different forms of the diminutive, each conveying its own special  
nuance of feeling for the noun undergoing the shrinking.         
IDIOMS         
Idioms are expressions that may not make sense but have clear and specific meanings  
anyhow because the speakers of the language have 「agreed」 that, rules notwithstanding,  
those particular words shall have a particular meaning. An idiom has a meaning that  
cannot be derived from the conjoined meaning of its elements.    
 
In English, we say 「Let』s take a walk!」 What are you taking? In Spanish, that  
becomes 「Damos un paseo,」 which literally means 「Let』s give a walk!」 What are you  
giving? Neither makes much sense but both are correct. Both are idioms.    
Some English idioms, at random, are: at first blush, at one』s wits end, axe to grind,  
beat around the bush, break the ice, chip off the old block, crack a joke, fit as a fiddle,  
forty winks, get in one』s hair, give a piece of one』s mind, keep the wolf from the door, red  
tape, and with flying colours.    
All languages have idioms. They』re fun and enriching and they illustrate  
differences and similarities among cultures. How philosophically distant is the  
Norwegian who says about a dim witted person, 「Han er darlig utstyrt i oeverst etasje」  
(「He』s poorly equipped on the top floor」), from the American Southerner who says,  
「He』s three pickles shy of a barrel」?    
Learn to diagnose idioms in English and make sure you never try to translate them  
literally into any other language. If you try to tell a Spanish friend, 「I』m on a roll,」 do not  
say 「Estoy en un panecillo.」 He will look under your feet for signs of crumbs without  
any comprehension that what you really meant to express is that things are going  
extremely well for you at the moment.    
Likewise, be attentive to idioms as they come at you in other languages. The  
German who tells you to 「break your neck and your leg」 is really wishing you luck. So is  
the Italian who seems to be sending you 「into the mouth of the wolf」!         
The foregoing is by no means the whole of the mechanical vocabulary you』ll need  
to conquer every other language on earth. You』ve got some dandies waiting for you  
inside whatever language you choose to tackle. In French and other languages you』ll  
meet the double negative. In Finnish, it』s worse: you』ll meet the inflecting negative!  
German will be watching to see if you can handle its double infinitive. Russian can』t wait  
to hit you with its perfective and imperfective verb aspects. Gender in Hebrew is so  
complex you have to know the sex of a dog before you can command it to quit biting  
you.    
These are not monsters in the woods. The lovely people who speak all those  
languages descend from people who found every single one of those Bermuda Triangles  
of grammar utterly logical and useful, and they』ve never felt the need to change.    
The old school grammarians, the ones who assassinated the desire of young  
Americans to learn foreign languages, were right in their insistence that knowledge of  
grammar is vital.    
They were wrong, however, to insist that all grammar must be learned here and now  
before we take our first step into conversation and the fun of learning another language.    
Again, grammar is best attacked from the rear. When you read the rule in your  
grammar book you may say to yourself, 「Oh, so that』s the reason I』ve been saying it that  
way all along, the way I learned from my phrase book, my cassettes, my newspaper, and  
my Italian friend at the pizzaria!」    
When you come upon an explanation of a grammatical wrinkle and you don』t  
understand all the terms in English, pick up a dictionary (not a language dictionary, but  
an English only dictionary). You』ve got to know something of your own language before  
you can efficiently learn another.    
                          
Last Words Before    
the Wedding                   
It is my hope that this volume will help those who』ve never yet dared to make the  
commitment, march to the altar, and 「marry」 another language. If you』ve already studied  
other languages, perhaps tried for years with disappointing results, let』s look at your next  
effort as a second marriage, fortified, this time, with the foregoing advice.    
Best men and bridesmaids traditionally utter inanities to grooms and brides before  
they march down the aisle. As your avuncular advisor, who at this writing has studied  
foreign languages as a hobby for forty-six years, let me use this precious final  
opportunity to hammer home some points – some repeats and some leftovers – that will  
ensure your success and ensure that you enjoy yourself as you succeed.         
Plunge In         
When an interviewer asked the famed bank robber Willy Sutton why he robbed banks, he  
replied, 「Because that』s where the money is.」 Using the language is where the real  
learning is. There』s a direct analogy to sports and war. Ask any ball player to give his  
views on the difference between watching the coach diagramme plays on a blackboard  
and facing the opponents in a real game. Ask any soldier the difference between basic  
training and actual combat.    
The same difference exists between language study and language use. Try recalling  
the words and phrases you』ve learned most recently the next time you meet by surprise a  
speaker of the language. Your mind is likely to be a frustrating blank. Once you』ve used  
your knowledge in real life, however, your chances of recall are much greater.    
Go out, then, and 「pick」 conversations in the language you』re learning, like a  
belligerent drunk picks fights.    
Certain words, phrases, idioms, and grammatical constructions will remain  
unmeltable lumps. They will defeat your best efforts to learn them. Many students accept  
such unscalable heights as proof that 「I don』t have an ear for languages!」 (That, by the  
way, is the most pernicious myth of all. If you have the motivation and discipline to    
 
proceed through the system, it doesn』t matter what kind of 「ear」 you have, so long as it  
can hear.)    
Once you score your first victory over one of those 「unconquerable」 fortresses, an  
emotional momentum is released that will carry you forward. Grab hold of the nearest  
holdout word and beat the hell out of it. Bite at it one syllable at a time or even one letter  
at a time. Throw fits of irrational energy against it until it』s yours.    
There is something truly serene about encountering a word that used to be a hideous  
holdout – and is now as familiar to you as your middle name!    
Point of sale is to good a term to be limited to disposable razors and other sundries  
arrayed near the cash register at convenience stores. Let』s apply it to getting ahead in a  
foreign language.    
The quickest and easiest time I ever had learning a phrase in a foreign language was  
Molim za ples, which is Serbo-Croatian for 「May I have this dance?」 I was a college  
student visiting Yugoslavia. An unforgivably attractive young woman smiled at me  
across the gym floor at a student dance. I asked Darko, my interpreter companion, how to  
say, 「May I have this dance?」    
「Molim za ples,」 he replied.    
I had no idea whether the mo or the lim or the za or the ples meant 「May」 or 「I」 or  
「have」 or 「this」 or 「dance.」 Nor did I waste time worrying about it. I simply strode  
across the floor, said 「Molim za ples,」 and enjoyed my first dance in Yugoslavia!    
Darko was giving me point of sale instruction.    
Use it! When you know you』re going to a restaurant the day after tomorrow where  
the waiters speak the language you』re trying to learn, don』t use your hidden moments in  
the meantime on general vocabulary. Sit down and compile a restaurant vocabulary of  
food items and utensils and let that be your focus from that moment until you leave the  
restaurant after the meal.    
Are you headed for a party over the weekend where you』re fairly sure at least one  
guest speaks your target language? Start carrying your phrase book as well as your flash  
cards and review the 「getting to know you」 phrases, such as 「Where are you from?」  
「How long do you intend to stay in America?」 etc.    
Whenever you see an impending opportunity to speak the language, get a head start  
by sizing up the news of the day and going into your dictionary for the terms you』ll need  
that you don』t yet know. (「Election,」 「proposal,」 「tariff,」 「amend,」 「hostage,」 「coup,」  
etc.) Focus your learning effort opportunistically to make the best possible showing when  
you reach the point of sale – the conversation you can anticipate.    
The 「show,」 by the way, is not to impress others. It』s to impress that part of you  
that, when you hear yourself doing so well, will inspire you to proceed with your broad  
front general advance through the language.    
A policeman is a policeman twenty-four hours a day. So is a fireman, a spy, a  
marine, and a language learner. Learn to catch yourself several times a day, indoors or  
outdoors, and look around. What are the first five things you see that you don』t know  
how to say in your target language? Write the English down on a blank flash card and fill  
in the target language words when you get home to your dictionary.    
At least once a day pretend you』re a United Nations interpreter simultaneously  
interpreting what somebody is saying to you in your target language. When he gets to the  
fifth word that you wouldn』t know how to say in your target language, abandon the    
 
exercise and write those words down, again, on a blank flash card. Fill in the foreign side  
of the flash card as soon as you get back to your dictionary.         
Reward-and-Denial Games         
There is a clever way to speed learning. Impose little discipline games on yourself geared  
to bringing you back to the language often throughout the day for short periods that can』t  
possibly get in your way. Don』t let yourself have the first cup of coffee until you review  
ten of the words you learned yesterday. Permit yourself dessert if you can go through ten  
whole flash cards without a mistake. Say yes to the extra glass of wine if you can name  
any five objects in the room in the foreign language while you hold your breath. Let  
yourself take off and go see the movie once you』re able to beat the speaker on the  
cassette to the foreign word or phrase for a solid minute. Or, as you advance, two or three  
minutes.    
Roll your own rules. It』s painless. It』s fun. It』s character building. And it rushes you  
forward to quicker results.         
Profanity and Vulgarity         
Forget it. Whoever uses foul language even in English among people he doesn』t know  
well loses standing. When you go out of your way to use bad language in a foreign  
language, it』s much worse.    
One night in a blockhouse on the Austrian side of the Hungarian border waiting for  
refugees to come across, our all male crowd represented three languages: English,  
German, and Hungarian. A brisk discussion in comparative obscenity broke out and a  
fascinating pattern emerged. Whatever we had three or four dirty words for in English,  
German always had sixteen or seventeen and Hungarian never less than thirty-five!    
Sure, the other guy』s garbage is fun to know, but it』s tacky, so leave it alone. It』s all  
right to get command of their unacceptable terms for defensive purposes only – so you』ll  
know what not to say and be able to exercise caution when using words dangerously  
similar to the no-no words.    
It』s a good idea to follow Maimonides on this one: 「What is lofty may be said in  
any language. What is mean should be said in none.」         
Your Second Foreign Language, Your Third, and So On         
It』s said that once you master one foreign language, all others come much more easily.  
That』s not a myth. Your first foreign language, in a major way, is the first olive dislodged  
from the bottle. The rest flow obligingly forth.    
Moreover, your second foreign language need have no connection to your first.  
Chinese will be easier if you』ve first mastered Italian. Greek will be easier if you』ve  
mastered Japanese. You pick up the principles of how language works with your first  
conquest. I once asked a man who commanded easily a dozen languages how he did it.    
「I started out studying languages when I was young,」 he said, 「and I was just too  
lazy to quit!    
 
He was kidding, of course, but a lot of true words are spoken through  
exaggerations.         
The Right Word         
Don』t settle for being merely understood. Some of the least intelligent and most  
unspectacular people on earth can be understood in languages other than their own. Keep  
pressing forward toward perfection. 「He think he』s a big shot」 gets the notion across, but  
that shouldn』t satisfy the learner of English searching for the word 「megalomaniac」.    
It』s a marvellous feeling of unfolding and growth when you learn more and more  
words that take you closer and closer to the bull』s eye of what you want to express.         
Saying It Right         
One of the most maddening things about language learning – you』ll encounter it time and  
time again – is having the face of the native you』re speaking with suddenly go blank.  
You』ve used a word he doesn』t understand. He asks you to repeat it. You do. He still  
doesn』t understand. You repeat it again. Slower. Louder. Finally, in frustration,  
desperation, and humiliation, you write the word down or show it to him in your book.    
Then he gets it. 「Ahh,」 the native speaker says, the black night of your spoken error  
suddenly pierced by the flashbulb of print. And then – here』s the payoff – he proceeds to  
repeat exactly what you』ve been saying to him a dozen or so times without his  
comprehending!    
That syndrome is particularly prevalent in Chinese, though you risk it in every  
language. Be a sport. Eat crow. And even though you』re far from the mood at that  
moment, try to catch something in what he says that』s at least slightly different from what  
you』ve been saying. If the next native speaker understands your revised pronunciation  
without an argument, then that crow you were forced to eat will retroactively taste like  
pheasant!    
Every language student has good days and bad days with the language for no  
apparent reason. On bad days you can』t seem to unleash a simple greeting without  
monumental phumphering. On good days you actually feel supernaturally propelled. A  
rising tide lifts all boats. Keep working. The bad days as well as the good days will both  
be better.         
To Speak or Not to Speak         
Be neither too boorish nor too reticent with your new knowledge. Don』t go barrelling in  
with scant command of a language if doing so causes ungainly delays in a busy  
restaurant. Neither should you let shyness deny you a good opportunity to send a few  
volleys of conversation across the net.    
Don』t be like the beginner who took his party into a French restaurant in New York  
and insisted on trying to order for everybody in French. The waiter, himself French,  
quickly abandoning any hope of understanding the poor wretch, pulled a diplomatic coup  
worthy of a medal and a kiss on both cheeks.    
 
「I』m sorry,」 he said, with an accent French enough to draw the truffles up out of the  
underbrush of Alsace, 「I don』t speak French.」    
「You don』t speak French!」 thundered the hapless showoff.    
「Non, monsieur,」 said the waiter.    
「Well, then,」 said he, 「send me somebody who does!」         
Speaking of Peace         
Does knowledge of other languages lead to peace? One witness says 「No. Knowing the  
other guy』s language merely enables you to get into more arguments of greater depth and  
intensity.」 Another witness says, 「Of course, language knowledge breeds peace. How  
could I pull a trigger and shoot a man when what I really want is a chance to sit down  
with him and learn his irregular verbs?」 Put me solidly in the latter category. It』s  
impossible to learn a language and not learn a great deal about the country and its people,  
and usually those who learn about a country and its people develop a certain empathy and  
advocacy for that nation.    
When Serb fights Croat in Yugoslavia, I don』t ignore it. Neither do I choose sides.  
They were both so helpful to me when I was learning Serbo-Croatian. I want them all to  
work together and get along.    
A little knowledge of a language, then of a people, can convert even a rabid partisan  
into a one man peace movement!         
Keep Learning         
Stay with it. Keep pressing ahead with all of the tools in all of the ways suggested, plus  
whatever other ways you discover en route that seem to work for you. Keep pursuing  
opportunities to use what you learn, not just in exercises and self simulation, but in  
genuine, real life conversation, reading, writing and comprehension.    
When will you 「arrive」? When will you no longer 「be studying」 but 「have learned」  
the language?    
Never! At least, pretend never. Your linguistic infancy will lead to babyhood,  
childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, and so on. Your fragments of knowledge will  
lead to competence. Your competence will lead to fluency. Your fluency will intensify to  
higher and higher levels of fluency.    
The best attitude, however, is that your attempt to master the foreign language  
should remain perpetually unfinished business.    
You』ll succeed if you make sure you never go to bed knowing no more of your  
target language that you did when you woke up!    
                                                             
P A R T T H R E E              
Appendices    
                          
The Language Club                   
In 1984 some of us language lovers decided that, although there were plenty of places in  
New York to learn foreign languages, there were no places to go to practice foreign  
languages.    
Sure, you can let fly a greeting in Italian and a request for red pepper at the pizzaria  
and practice similar performances at even the busiest French restaurant, but there was no  
place to sit down, have a glass of wine, open books, converse with others, and consult  
with native speakers for two or three hours at a time.    
So we started the Language Club with 「practice parties」 every Monday night at La  
Maganette, a restaurant in Manhattan at the corner of Third Avenue and Fiftieth Street.  
That remains our 「mother club,」 though we』ve extended our practice parties to other  
evenings and other restaurants – even a Sunday brunch at Victor』s on Columbus Avenue  
at Seventy-first Street.    
Our mission is to enable men and women to practice conversation in other  
languages in a pleasant, non-threatening atmosphere at fine restaurants at a minimum  
price. The restaurants understand the uniqueness of the Language Club and enjoy  
catering to such a high minded endeavour.    
The questions callers most frequently ask about the Language Club are 「What night  
is French?」 and 「What』s your age group?」    
We explain that every night is French night – all languages are welcome at all  
practice parties. When you enter you go to the French table, the Italian table, the Spanish  
table, the German table, the Russian table, etc. Many visitors grasshopper from table to  
table, practicing three, four, or more different languages at the same practice party.    
When they ask about age group, we immediately understand that their agenda is  
broader than mere language practice! We first explain we』re a language club, not a  
「social」 club or a 「singles」 club. We emphasise that age is irrelevant, since someone five  
years old can provide good language practice for someone ninety-five years old.    
Having made that point, we then relent a bit and explain that indeed many of our  
members are single, and if two single language lovers should enter our practice party  
separately and leave together, we don』t blow a whistle and pull a citizen』s arrest. In fact,  
we have several 「language marriages」 to our credit and at least one confirmed birth!    
 
All we ask is your sincere interest in language practice. All your other interests will  
be tolerated provided they do not result in any infringement of the law!    
All those wishing more information about the Language Club may write:         
The Language Club    
P.O. Box 121    
New York, NY 10108         
Our telephone number is (212) 787-2110.    
The Language Club has no official handshake, club song, club motto, or club dues.  
(You come when you feel like it and you pay for your own meal.)    
We do, however, have an official club joke. Once you know this joke, you』re as  
much a member of the Language Club as anybody else.    
Two mice were hopelessly trapped. A hungry cat was poised to pounce. There was  
no escape.    
At the last instant, one of the mice put his little paws up to his lips and yelled, 「Bow  
wow!」    
The cat turned around and ran away, whereupon that mouse turned to the other  
mouse and said, 「You see, that』s the advantage of knowing a second language!」    
                          
The Principal Languages    
of the World                   
Source: Sidney S. Culbert, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. 98195    
Total number of speakers (native plus nonnative) of languages spoken by at least  
one million persons (midyear 1989)         
Language Millions         
Achinese (N. Sumatra, Indonesia) ………………………………………….. 3    
Afrikaans (South Africa) …………………………………………………… 10    
Akan (or Twi-Fante) (Ghana) ……………………………………………… 7    
Albanian (Albania; Yugoslavia) ……………………………………………. 5    
Amharic (Ethiopia) …………………………………………………………. 17    
Arabic ………………………………………………………………………. 197    
Armenian (USSR) …………………………………………………………… 5    
Assamese (Assam, India; Bangladesh) ……………………………………… 22    
Aymara (Bolivia; Peru) ……………………………………………………… 2    
Azerbaijani (Iran; USSR) …………………………………………………… 14    
Balinese (Indonesia) ………………………………………………………… 3    
Baluchi (Bakuchistan, Pakistan) ……………………………………………. 4    
Bashkir (USSR) …………………………………………………………….. 1    
Batak Toda (including Anakola) (Indonesia) (see also karo-Dain) ………….. 4    
Baule (Cote d』Ivoire) ……………………………………………………….. 2    
Beja (Kassala, Sudan; Ethiopia) ……………………………………………. 1    
Bemba (Zambia) ……………………………………………………………. 2    
Bengali1/Berber2 (Bengal, India; Bangladesh) ……………………………… 184    
Beti (Cameroon; Gabon; Eq. Guinea) ………………………………………. 2    
Bhili (India) …………………………………………………………………. 3    
Bikol (SE Luzon, Philippines) ………………………………………………. 4    
Brahui (Pakistan; Afghanistan; Iran) ………………………………………… 1    
 
Bugis (Indonesia; Malaysia) …………………………………………………. 4    
Bulgarian (Bulgaria) ………………………………………………………… 9    
Burmese (Burma) ……………………………………………………………. 30    
Buyi (S Guizhou, S China) …………………………………………………… 2    
Byelorussian (USSR) ………………………………………………………… 10    
Cantonese (or Yue) (China; Hong Kong) …………………………………….. 63    
Catalan (NE Spain; S France; Andorra) ……………………………………… 9    
Cebuano (Bohol Sea area, Philippines) ………………………………………. 12    
Chagga (Kilimanjaro area, Tanzania) ………………………………………… 1    
Chiga (Ankole, Uganda) ……………………………………………………… 1    
Chinese3   
Chuvash (USSR) ……………………………………………………………… 2    
Czech (Czechoslovakia) ………………………………………………………. 12    
Danish (Denmark) …………………………………………………………….. 5    
Dimli (EC Turkey) ……………………………………………………………. 1    
Dogri (Jammu-Kashmir, C and E India) ………………………………………. 1    
Dong (Guizhou, Hunan, Guangxi, China) …………………………………….. 2    
Dutch-Flemish (Netherlands; Belgium) ……………………………………….. 21    
Dyerma (SW Niger) …………………………………………………………… 2    
Edo (Bendel, S Nigeria) ……………………………………………………….. 1    
Efik (incl. Ibido) (SE Nigeria; W Cameroon) …………………………………. 6    
English ………………………………………………………………………… 443    
Esperanto ……………………………………………………………………… 2    
Estonian (Estonia) …………………………………………………………….. 1    
Ewe (SE Ghana; S Togo) ……………………………………………………… 3    
Fang-Bulu (Dialects of Beti, q.v.)    
Farsi (Iranian form of Persian, q.v.)    
Finnish (Finland; Sweden) …………………………………………………….. 6    
Flemish (see Dutch-Flemish)    
Fon (SC Benin; S Togo) ………………………………………………………. 1    
French (France, Switzerland) …………………………………………………. 121    
Fula (or Peulh) (Cameroon; Nigeria) …………………………………………. 13    
Fulakunda (Senegambia; Guinea Bissau) …………………………………….. 2    
Futa Jalon (NW Guinea; Sierra Leone) ……………………………………….. 3    
Galician (Galicia, NW Spain) …………………………………………………. 3    
Galla (see Oromo)    
Ganda (or Luganda) (S Uganda) ………………………………………………. 3    
Georgian (USSR) ……………………………………………………………… 4    
German (Germany; Austria; Switzerland) …………………………………….. 118    
Gilaki (Gilan, NW Iran) ……………………………………………………….. 2    
Gogo (Riff Valley, Tanzania) ………………………………………………….. 1    
Gondi (Central India) ………………………………………………………….. 2    
Greek (Greece) ………………………………………………………………… 12    
Guarani (Paraguay) ……………………………………………………………. 4    
Gujarati (W and C India; S Pakistan) ………………………………………….. 38    
Gusii (Kisii District, Nyanza, Kenya) ………………………………………….. 2    
 
Hadiyya (Arusi, Ethiopia) ……………………………………………………… 2    
Hakka (or Kejia) (SE China) …………………………………………………… 32    
Hani (S China) …………………………………………………………………. 1    
Hausa (N Nigeria; Niger; Cameroon) ………………………………………….. 34    
Haya (Kagera, NW Tanzania) …………………………………………………. 1    
Henrew (Israel) …………………………………………………………………. 4    
Hindi4 …………………………………………………………………………… 352    
Ho (Buhar and Orissa states, India) …………………………………………….. 1    
Hungarian (or Magyar) (Hungary) ……………………………………………… 14    
Iban (Kalimantan, Indonesia; Malaysia) ……………………………………….. 1    
Ibidio (see Efik)    
Igbo (or Ibo) (Lower Niger R., Nigeria) ………………………………………… 16    
Ijaw (Niger River Delta, Nigeria) ………………………………………………. 2    
Ilocano (NW Luzon, Philippines) ……………………………………………….. 7    
Indonesian (see Malay-Indonesian)    
Italian (Italy) ……………………………………………………………………. 63    
Japanese (Japan) ………………………………………………………………… 125    
Javanese (Java, Indonesia) ……………………………………………………… 58    
Kabyle (W Kabylia, N Algeria) ………………………………………………… 3    
Kamba (E Kenya) ………………………………………………………………. 3    
Kannada1 (S India) ……………………………………………………………… 3    
Kanuri (Nigeria; Niger; Chad; Cameroon) ……………………………………… 4    
Karen (see Sgaw)    
Karo-Dairi (N Sumatra, Indonesia) …………………………………………….. 2    
Kashmiri1 (N India; NE Pakistan) ……………………………………………… 4    
Kazakh (USSR) ……………………………………………………………….. 8    
Kenuzi-Dongola (S Egypt; Sudan) ……………………………………………. 1    
Khalka (see Mongolian)    
Khmer (Kampuchea; Vietnam; Thailand) ……………………………………… 7    
Khmer, Northern (Thailand) …………………………………………………… 1    
Kikuyu (or Gekoyo) (W and C Kenya) ……………………………………….. 5    
Kirghiz (USSR) ……………………………………………………………….. 2    
Kituba (Bas-Zaire, Bandundu, Zaire) …………………………………………. 4    
Kongo (W Zaire; S Congo; NW Angola) ……………………………………… 3    
Konkani (Maharashita and SW India) ………………………………………… 4    
Korean (North and South Korea; China; Japan) ………………………………. 71    
Kurdish (south-west of Caspian Sea) …………………………………………. 9    
Kurukh (or Oraon) (C and E India) …………………………………………… 2    
Lao5 (Laos) …………………………………………………………………… 4    
Lampung (Sumatra, Indonesia) ………………………………………………. 1    
Latvian (Latvia) ………………………………………………………………. 2    
Lingala (incl. Bangala) (Zaire) ……………………………………………….. 6    
Lithuanian (Lithuania) ……………………………………………………….. 2    
Luba-Lulua (or Chiluba) (Kasai, Zaire) ………………………………………. 6    
Luba-Shaba (Shaba, Zaire) …………………………………………………… 1    
Lubu (E Sumatra, Indonesia) …………………………………………………. 1    
 
Luhya (W Kenya) …………………………………………………………….. 3    
Luo (Kenya; Nyanza, Tanzania) ……………………………………………… 3    
Luri (SW Iran; Iraq) ………………………………………………………….. 3    
Lwena (E Angola; W Zambia) ……………………………………………….. 1    
Macedonian (Macedonia, Yugoslavia) ……………………………………….. 2    
Madurese (Madura, Indonesia) ……………………………………………….. 10    
Magindanaon (Moro Gulf, S Philippines) …………………………………….. 1    
Makassar (S Sulawesi, Indonesia) …………………………………………….. 2    
Makua (S Tanzania; N Mozambique) ………………………………………… 3    
Malagasy (Madagascar) ………………………………………………………. 11    
Malay-Indonesian …………………………………………………………….. 142    
Malay, Pattani (SE peninsular Thailand) ……………………………………… 1    
Malayalam1 (Kerala, India) …………………………………………………… 34    
Malinke-Bambara-Dyula (W Africa) …………………………………………. 9    
Mandarin (China, Taiwan, Singapore) ………………………………………… 864    
Marathi1 (Maharashtra, India) ………………………………………………… 64    
Mazandarani (S Mazandaran, N Iran) ………………………………………… 2    
Mbundu (or Umbundu) (Benguela, Angola) ………………………………….. 3    
Mbundu (or Kimbundu) (Luanda, Angola) …………………………………… 3    
Meithei (NE India; Bangladesh) ………………………………………………. 1    
Mende (S and E Sierra Leone) ………………………………………………… 2    
Meru (Eastern Province, C Tanzania) …………………………………………. 1    
Miao (or Hmong) (S China; SE Asia) …………………………………………. 5    
Mien (China; Vietnam; Laos; Thailand) ………………………………………. 2    
Min (SE China; Taiwan; Malaysia) …………………………………………… 48    
Minangkabau (W Sumatra, Indonesia) ……………………………………….. 6    
Moldavian (included with Romanian)    
Mongolian (Mongolia; NE China) …………………………………………….. 5    
Mordvin (USSR) ………………………………………………………………. 1    
More (central part of Burkina Faso) …………………………………………… 4    
Nepali (Nepal, NE India; Bhutan) …………………………………………….. 13    
Ngulu (Zambezia, Mozambique Malawi) …………………………………….. 2    
Nkole (Western Province, Uganda) …………………………………………… 1    
Norwegian (Norway) …………………………………………………………. 5    
Nung (NE of Hanoi, Vietnam; China) ………………………………………… 1    
Nupe (Kwara, Niger States, Nigeria) ………………………………………….. 1    
Nyamwezi-Sukuma (NW Tanzania) ………………………………………….. 4    
Nyanja (Malawi; Zambia; N Zimbabwe) ……………………………………… 4    
Oriya1 (E India) ……………………………………………………………….. 30    
Oromo (W Ethiopia; N Kenya) ……………………………………………….. 10    
Pampangan (NW of Manila, Philippines) …………………………………….. 2    
Panay-Hiligaynon (Philippines) ………………………………………………. 6    
Pangasinan (Philippines) ……………………………………………………… 2    
Pashtu (Pakistan; Afghanistan; Iran) …………………………………………. 21    
Pedi (see Sotho, Northern)    
Persian (Iran; Afghanistan) …………………………………………………… 32    
 
Polish (Poland) ……………………………………………………………….. 43    
Portugese (Portugal, Brazil) ………………………………………………….. 173    
Proven.al (S France) …………………………………………………………. 4    
Punjabi1 (Punjab, Pakistan; NW India) ……………………………………….. 84    
Pushto (see Pashtu – many spellings)    
Quechua (Peru; Bolivia; Ecuador; Argentina) ………………………………… 8    
Rejang (SW Sumatra, Indonesia) ……………………………………………… 1    
Riff (N Morocco; Algerian Coast) …………………………………………….. 1    
Romanian (Romania; Moldavia, USSR) ……………………………………… 25    
Romany (Vlach only) (Europe; America) …………………………………….. 1    
Ruanda (Rwanda; S Uganda; E Zaire) ………………………………………… 8    
Rundi (Burundi) ………………………………………………………………. 6    
Russian (USSR) ……………………………………………………………….. 293    
Samar-Leyte (Central E Philippines) ………………………………………….. 3    
Sango (Central African Republic) …………………………………………….. 3    
Santali (E India; Nepal) ………………………………………………………. 5    
Sasak (Lombok, Alas Strait, Indonesia) ………………………………………. 1    
Serbo-Croatian (Yugoslavia) …………………………………………………. 20    
Sgaw (SW, W, N of Rangoon, Burma) ……………………………………….. 1    
Shan (Shan, E Burma) ………………………………………………………… 3    
Shilha (W Algeria; S Morocco) ……………………………………………….. 3    
Shona (Zimbabwe) ……………………………………………………………. 7    
Sidamo (Sidamo, S Ethiopia) …………………………………………………. 1    
Sindhi1 (SE Pakistan; W India) ……………………………………………….. 16    
Sinhalese (Sri Lanka) …………………………………………………………. 13    
Slovak (Czechoslovakia) ……………………………………………………… 5    
Slovene (Slovenia, NW Yugoslavia) ………………………………………….. 2    
Soga (Busoga, Uganda) ……………………………………………………….. 1    
Somali (Somalia; Ethiopia; Kenya; Djbouti) ………………………………….. 7    
Songye (Kasia Or., NW Shala, Zaire) …………………………………………. 1    
Soninke (Mali; countries to W, S, E) ………………………………………….. 1    
Sotho, Northern (South Africa) ……………………………………………….. 3    
Sotho, Southern (South Africa; Lesotho) ……………………………………… 4    
Spanish (Spain; Central and South America; Caribbean) ……………………… 341    
Sundanese (Sunda Strait, Indonesia) ………………………………………….. 24    
Swahili (Kenya; Tanzania; Zaire; Uganda) …………………………………… 43    
Swati (Swaziland; South Africa) ……………………………………………… 1    
Swedish (Sweden; Finland) …………………………………………………… 9    
Sylhetti (Bangladesh) …………………………………………………………. 5    
Tagalog (Philippines) …………………………………………………………. 36    
Tajiki (USSR) ………………………………………………………………… 4    
Tamazight (N Morocco; W Algeria) ………………………………………….. 3    
Tamil1 (Tamil Nadu, India; Sri Lanka) ……………………………………….. 65    
Tatar (USSR) ………………………………………………………………….. 7    
Tausug (Philippines; Malaysia) ……………………………………………….. 1    
Telugu1 (Andhra Pradesh, SE India) ………………………………………….. 68    
 
Temne (C Sierra Leone) ………………………………………………………. 1    
Thai5 (Thailand) ………………………………………………………………. 48    
Tho (N Vietnam; S China) …………………………………………………….. 1    
Thonga (Mozambique; South Africa) …………………………………………. 3    
Tibetan (SW China; N India; Nepal) ………………………………………….. 5    
Tigrinya (S Eritrea, Tigre, Ethiopia) ………………………………………….. 4    
Tiv (SE Nigeria; Cameroon) ………………………………………………….. 2    
Tong (see Dong)    
Tonga (SW Zambia; NW Zimbabwe) ………………………………………… 2    
Tswana (Botswana; South Africa) ……………………………………………. 3    
Tudza (N Vietnam; S China) …………………………………………………. 1    
Tulu (S India) ………………………………………………………………… 2    
Tumbuka (N Malawi; NE Zambia) …………………………………………… 2    
Turkish (Turkey) ……………………………………………………………… 55    
Turkmen (S USSR; NE Iran; Afghanistan) …………………………………… 3    
Twi-Fante (see Akan)    
Uighur (Xinjang, NW China; SC USSR) ……………………………………… 7    
Ukranian (USSR; Poland) …………………………………………………….. 45    
Urdu4 (Pakistan; India) ……………………………………………………….. 92    
Uzbek (USSR) ………………………………………………………………… 13    
Vietnamese (Vietnam) ………………………………………………………… 57    
Wolaytta (SW Ethiopia) ………………………………………………………. 2    
Wolof (Senegal) ………………………………………………………………. 6    
Wu (Shanghai and nearby provinces, China) …………………………………. 62    
Xhosa (SW Cape Province, South Africa) …………………………………….. 7    
Yao (see Mien) (Malawi; Tanzania; Mozambique)    
Yi (S and SW China) ………………………………………………………….. 6    
Yiddish6   
Yoruba (SW Nigeria; Zou, Benin) …………………………………………….. 18    
Zande (NE Zaire; SW Sudan) …………………………………………………. 1    
Zhuang (S China) ……………………………………………………………… 14    
Zulu (N Natal, South Africa; Lesotho) ………………………………………… 7         
(1) One of the fifteen languages of the Constitution of India. (2) See Kabyle, Riff,  
Shilha, and Tamazight. (3) See Mandarin, Cantonese, Wu, Min, and Hakka. The  
「common speech」 (Putonghua) or the 「national language」 (Guoyu) is a standardised  
form of Mandarin as spoken in the area of Beijing. (4) Hindi and Urdu are essentially the  
same language, Hindustani. As the official language of Pakistan it is written in a  
modified Arabic script and called Urdu. As the official language of India it is written in  
the Devanagari script and called Hindi. (5) The distinction between some Thai dialects  
and Lao is political rather than linguistic. (6) Yiddish is usually considered a variant of  
German, though it has its own standard grammar, dictionaries, a highly developed  
literature, and is written in Hebrew characters.      
                          
Farber』s Language    
Reviews                   
We have such things as theatre reviews, movie reviews, books reviews, and restaurant  
reviews to help trusting readers decide which plays, movies, books, and restaurants are  
worth their time and money.    
So here』s a series of language reviews – thumbnail sketches of some of the major  
languages of the world with comments on their prevalence, their usefulness, the difficulty  
or ease with which each may be learned, and special characteristics the potential learner  
should know.         
French         
After English, French is the world』s most popular second language. Several other  
languages are spoken by more people: Chinese, English, Hindustani (the spoken form of  
Hindi and Urdu), Russian, Spanish, Japanese, German, Indonesian, and even Portugese  
count more speakers than French. But French can be heard in practically every corner of  
the world and is often spoken by the most influential segments of a given population. The  
old French empire, though not as vast as the British, was nonetheless vast. French is  
therefore spoken in what you may find a surprising number of countries. So is Chinese,  
but the French spoken by the educated classes and government officials in Canada,  
Africa, Lebanon and throughout the Middle East, Asia, the Caribbean, and the South  
Pacific outweighs in cultural influence the Chinese spoken in the Chinatowns of  
America, Indonesia, the Philippines, Singapore, Burma, Vietnam, London, and  
everywhere else.    
French no longer deserves its reputation as 「the language of diplomacy」 (during  
how many summit meetings since World War II have the chiefs of state been able to  
communicate even one simple thought to each other in French?), but never mind. French  
is still respected and revered as a language of cultured people the world over.    
Fully sixty percent of all those who come to practice parties at the Language Club  
in New York come seeking practice in French. Efforts to convince Americans shopping    
 
around for a language to learn to shift their attentions from French to currently more  
advantageous languages like Japanese, Chinese, Russian, and Arabic are usually  
unavailing. It』s French they want!    
French lies in the middle range of difficulty to learn. The grammar is mercifully  
simple, but correct pronunciation with a decent French accent is hard to achieve. And for  
some reason, bad French comes across as much worse than bad German, bad Italian, bad  
Spanish, or bad anything else. The native French ear and French attitude are unforgiving.    
There are no noun cases, but verbs inflect and adjectives must agree with nouns.  
There』s a subjunctive mood you』re strongly urged to learn even though the younger  
French themselves increasingly ignore it.    
If you』re planning to study French along with other languages, make sure you learn  
French best of all. You will be judged in the world by your French, and no matter how  
well you handle Dutch, Hungarian, Norwegian, or Indonesian, you will not be regarded  
as a person of language accomplishment if your French is poor.         
Spanish         
Spanish seems to be the 「natural」 second language for Americans, owing to our  
proximity to the Spanish-speaking centres of North, Central, and South America and the  
growing prevalence of Spanish in our country. It』s easier for Americans to speak good  
Spanish than good French. It』s a more phonetic language and you don』t have the problem  
of the last few letters of a word being silent – as you often do in French. Also, correct  
Spanish pronunciation is less difficult than correct French pronunciation.    
Spanish grammar is similar to French (as is that of all other Romance languages),  
and the subjunctive tense waits to test your character.    
There are some happy surprises in store for Spanish learners. Of course you expect  
Spanish to carry you through Latin America and Spain, but you may not expect to be able  
to communicate with the older generation in the Philippines and even with Sephardic  
Jews in Israel (as well as Greece, Turkey, Yugoslavia, and Bulgaria) whose vernacular is  
a language known as Ladino, a fifteenth and sixteenth century Spanish with a Hebrew  
admixture that is written in the Hebrew alphabet. Spanish offers perhaps the grandest of  
good deal opportunities. Whoever learns Spanish holds an option to acquire Portugese at  
half price.         
Portugese         
Don』t dismiss Portugese as some kind of slurring, overnasalised cousin of Spanish.    
The lightning population growth of Portugese speaking Brazil alone makes  
Portugese a major world language. Ancient Portugese navigators carried the language to  
the mid-Atlantic, the African countries of Angola and Mozambique, the enclave of Goa  
in India, and even the Indonesian island of Timor.    
Portugese is the ninth most widely spoken language in the world, after Chinese,  
English, Hindi-Urdu, Russian, Spanish, Japanese, German, and Indonesian. Thus,  
Portugese is an intelligent choice for the language 「shopper」 who wants to be different  
without abandoning the mainstream.    
 
Portugese nasal sounds are easier than the French and the grammar is only slightly  
more difficult than Spanish. Because I learned Spanish first, Portugese will always sound  
to me like Spanish that』s been damaged on delivery. (That』s just a smile, not an insult.  
Dutch sounds the same way to anyone who』s first studied German, Danish sounds that  
way to anyone who』s first studied Norwegian, and Serbo-Croatian definitely fits the  
description to anyone who』s first studied Russian.)         
German         
Germany didn』t leave us a world of colonies where people still speak German, but they  
may as well have. In addition to being the principal language of Germany, Austria, and  
one of the three main languages of Switzerland, German is, surprisingly, the language  
most natives will try first on foreigners when they come visiting in Hungary, Yugoslavia,  
Czechoslovakia, Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia – in fact all the way from Germany』s  
eastern border with Poland as far east as Moscow and from the Baltic Sea in the north  
clear down to the Mediterranean. English may edge German out by the time of the next  
scientific poll in Eastern Europe, but that leaves a tremendous number of German  
speakers across Europe and elsewhere. Germany』s reunification, reestablishing Germany  
as the central European power, can only intensify the German language』s importance.    
German grammar is far from the most difficult, though you』ll be hard to convince  
when you find yourself trapped in one of German』s unending dependent clauses. You can  
wait through lunch for the German noun after a loop-the-loop adjectival clause that might  
translate literally as 「the never- having- definitively- researched- the- mating- habits- of-  
the- Asian- armadillo- Dr. Schultz,」 and you can wait even longer for the German verb.  
It』s something you get the hang of, though, and remember, German is family. Its kinship  
with English will be a boon throughout.    
There are three genders in German and officially four noun cases, but they』re easy.  
In only one case does the noun itself change endings, the rest being taken care of by the  
preceding article, adjective, or other modifier.    
German offers dividends to those interested in science, philosophy, opera, and  
getting a good job in international commerce.         
Italian         
Everybody who』s ever wrestled with Latin deserves to pick up an Italian grammar book  
just to relax. Italian is easy Latin, a delight to plunge into. There are three different types  
of verbs, but noun cases have been eliminated. Unlike French, Italian pronunciation is  
church bell clear, and you can read Italian off the page and be understood after mastering  
the regular rules governing the sounds of letters. There are no orthographical booby traps  
such as the English tough, weigh, night, though, and the dozens of other deceptive  
spellings we Americans can be grateful we never had to learn as foreigners.    
Opera, art, wine, cuisine, history, and archaeology are some of the motivators for  
learning Italian. Italians are nicer to foreigners trying to learn their language than any  
other people whose language is a major one. A passable attempt to speak French in  
France is likely to bring little but grudging comprehension from the French. A passable    
 
attempt to speak Italian in Italy will likely lead to an explosive exclamation, 「Ahh, you  
speak our language!」 followed by an offer of a free espresso.                   
Dutch         
It』s easy to dismiss Dutch as a slim shadow of its big language neighbour, German, and  
of possible interest only to those Americans eager to ingratiate themselves with an aging  
aunt in Amsterdam with a valuable art collection. Not so fast. In addition to the Dutch  
spoken in Holland, there are millions of Belgians whose language may be officially  
called Flemish but is actually nothing but Dutch going under an assumed name. You』ve  
also got millions of educated Indonesians who speak Dutch as a historical echo from the  
four hundred years of Dutch colonial rule. Moreover, Dutch is the mother tongue of  
Afrikaans, the language of those white South Africans whose ancestors were the Boers  
(boer is the Dutch word for 「farmer」). Afrikaaners not only understand Dutch but look  
up to Dutch much as an Alabaman looks up to someone who speaks British English.    
Dutch is much simpler for Americans to learn than German. There are only two  
genders (oddly enough, not mascuine and feminine, but common and neuter). Verb  
endings don』t change as much in Dutch as in German, and its word order is more like  
English than German』s is.    
You need not pretend Dutch is a beautiful language. The Dutch themselves joke  
about the coarseness of their language. It』s got more of a guttural sound than Arabic,  
Hebrew, Russian, and Farsi. If you want a concert in Dutch guttural, ask the next person  
who speaks Dutch to say, 「Misschien is Uw scheermesje niet scherp genoeg.」 It means  
「Perhaps your razor blade is not sharp enough,」 but that』s irrelevant. That short sentence  
explodes with five gutturals that cause the speaker to sound like the exhaust pipe of a  
Greyhound bus through a full set of gear changes!    
When you learn Dutch, you can cash in on at least forty percent credit when you  
decide to take up German.         
Russian         
Russian is the world』s fourth language in number of speakers after Chinese, English, and  
Hindustani. It is extremely difficult to learn to speak Russian correctly, but the Russians  
have learned to be patient with foreigners who speak incorrect Russian. Journalists and  
others fascinated by discussing recent history with Soviet citizens suddenly free to talk to  
foreigners get a lot of joy out of knowing Russian. The much touted commercial  
advantages of learning Russian, however, have so far fallen far short of expectation.    
The jobs with gargantuan salaries promised to Russian speakers as a fruit of the  
resurgence of free enterprise in the Soviet Union are few and shaky as the early  
enthusiasm of foreign investors gives way to wait and see attitudes. Long range, Russian  
remains a good bet for those willing to learn a language for career advantage. And in the  
meantime you can enjoy reading Chekhov and Dostoyevski in the original.    
The Russian alphabet may look formidable, but it』s a false alarm. It can be learned  
in twenty minutes, but then you』ve got to face the real obstacles, such as three genders;    
 
six noun cases with wave upon wave of noun groups that decline differently; a past tense  
that behaves like an adjective; and verbs that have not just person, number, and tense, but  
also something called 「aspect」 – perfective or imperfective.    
Knowing Russian yields a lot of satisfaction. You want to pinch yourself as you  
find yourself gliding through a printed page of a language you may have grown up  
suspecting and fearing. Russian, like German, crackles with good, gutsy sounds that  
please you as they leap from your tongue. Russian is a high gratitude language. The new  
immigrants from the Soviet Union, though they speak one of the major languages of the  
world, don』t expect Americans to know it. They』ll be overjoyed to hear their language  
from you.    
One advantage of choosing Russian is the head start it offers in almost a dozen  
other Slavic languages, should you suddenly want or need one.         
Chinese         
Chinese is actually more of a life involvement than a language you choose to study.  
When you』re in your easy chair studying, Chinese has more power to make you forget  
it』s dinner time than any other language. It has more power to draw you out of bed earlier  
than necessary to sneak in a few more moments of study. There』s simply more there.    
More people speak Chinese than any other language on earth. There』s hardly a  
community in the world that doesn』t have someone who speaks Chinese as a native. Even  
in the 1940』s, when I first began studying Chinese, there was a Chinese restaurant and a  
Chinese laundry even in our small town of Greensboro, North Carolina. You can count  
on conversation practice in Chinese from the Chinese laundries of Costa Rica to the  
Chinese restaurants of Israel.    
The Chinese Communists on the mainland and the Chinese Nationalists in Taiwan  
agree that the national language of Chinese is the northern Chinese dialect of Mandarin.  
Accept no substitute. Be sure you know what you』re doing if you set out to learn any  
Chinese dialect other than Mandarin! It was almost impossible to find a Chinese person  
in a Chinese restaurant in America who spoke Mandarin forty years ago. They all spoke a  
subdialect of Cantonese, being descendants of the Chinese labourers who came to build  
America』s transcontinental railroad in the 1800』s. Today it』s almost impossible to find a  
Chinese restaurant in America where the waiters don』t speak Mandarin.    
Don』t let yourself be drawn into Cantonese merely because your Chinese friends  
happen to be of Cantonese descent or because your new employees are from Cantonese  
speaking Hong Kong. Even the Cantonese themselves are now trying to learn Mandarin!    
Spoken Chinese is enthrallingly easy. There』s nothing we could call 「grammar」 in  
Chinese. Verbs, nouns, and adjectives never change endings for any reason. I once  
caught a showoff student of Chinese trying to intimidate new students by warning them  
that Chinese had a different word for 「yes」 and 「no」 for each question! That』s largely  
true, but not the slightest bit difficult.    
The closest thing Chinese has to what we think of as grammar is what we』ll call  
「interesting ways.」 When you pose a question in Chinese you present both alternatives.  
Thus, 「Are you going?」 becomes 「You go not go?」 or 「Are you going or not?」 If you  
are going, the word for 「yes」 to that question is 「go.」 If you』re not going, you say 「Not    
 
go.」 Likewise, 「Are you going to play?」 becomes, literally translated, 「You play not  
play?」 To answer 「yes,」 you say 「Play.」 「No」 is 「Not play.」    
You』ve already learned some of the 「middle language」 essential to the mastery of  
Chinese. Don』t fear that, because there』s a middle language, you』re being called upon to  
learn two languages to acquire just one! It』s a shortcut. The middle language is English –  
the way a Chinese person would say it if all he could do were to come up with the  
English words literally and nothing more. Thus, 「Do you have my pencil?」 in middle  
language is 『You have I-belong pencil, no have?」 「The man who lives in the white  
house」 becomes 「Live in white house-belong man.」    
I find it helpful to look for the middle language no matter what language I』m  
studying. In Russian, 「The vase is on the table」 becomes 「Vase on table.」 「Do you have  
a pen?」 becomes 「Is by you pen?」 「I like the cake」 in Spanish is 「To me is pleasing the  
cake.」 「Where have you studied German?」 in German is 「Where have you German  
studied?」 「Do you want me to help?」 in Yiddish is 「Do you want I should help?」 – a  
construction that should come as no surprise to anyone with immigrant Jewish  
grandparents.    
The middle language helps you get the hang of things. Once you see the structure as  
revealed by the middle language, it』s easier for you to climb inside the targt language.  
Learning the 「interesting ways」 through middle language is especially important in  
Chinese.    
Chinese has no alphabet. Each ideogram or character is complete unto itself and  
each must be learned. There are said to be as many as eighty thousand Chinese  
characters. Fear not. You can carry on fairly sophisticated conversations with knowledge  
of a few hundred characters and you can carry on like a Ming orator once you compile a  
couple of thousand. You can read a Chinese newspaper with fewer than six thousand.  
Though lacking an alphabet, Chinese nonetheless has 214 radicals, the elements that  
make up the building blocks for almost every Chinese character. The fact that there are  
clusters of Chinese characters that surrender to you by the family group makes the going  
quicker and easier.    
One problem: the pronunciation of each Chinese character is always one syllable  
and one syllable only. Therefore, the same sound has to represent a lot of different things.  
We have a slight touch of that in English – a pier has nothing to do with a peer – but  
imagine how much utterance duplication you』d have if each word in the language were  
limited to one syllable only. (Beginners who learn that the Chinese word for 「chopsticks」  
is kwai dze and 「bus」 is gung gung chee chuh may object. I simply mean that the term for  
「chopsticks」 is two separate words [characters] in Chinese and the term for 「bus」 is  
four!) A Chinese textbook for Americans that makes no pretense of being complete lists  
seventy-five different meanings for the sound shih alone!    
Chinese differentiates among the various possibilities of meaning by the use of  
tones. Each Chinese word is assigned a specific tone, like a musical note. Mandarin  
Chinese has four tones, Cantonese has nine.    
The word wu in Mandarin』s first tone means 「room,」 in tone two it means 「vulgar,」  
in tone three it means 「five,」 and in tone four wu means 「disobedient.」    
Take the sentence 「Mother is scolding the horse.」 The spoken Chinese transliterates  
as ma ma ma ma. If we want to make it a question and ask 「Is mother scolding the  
horse?」 just add a fifth ma. Without the tones a Chinese person would hear an    
 
unintelligible babble. With the correct tones, however, it would be as clear to him as  
「Peering at a pair of pairs on the pier」 is to us.    
Ideally you should know the tone of each word and the circumstances under which  
words shifts tones, but until you attain that lofty peak, you』ll be okay if you do your best  
to imitate the tonality of the native Chinese speaker on your cassettes.    
Much is made of our ability to read the Chinese soul through the Chinese language.  
「Tomorrow」 in Chinese is ming tien, which literally means 「bright day.」 The character  
for 「good』 literally depicts woman with child, suggesting that a mother and child are  
emblematic of everything good. The character meaning 「peace」 depicts a woman under a  
roof. The character for 「discord,」 however, is three women under one roof!    
All that is indeed fun but hardly a cryptanalysis of the Chinese soul. After all, how  
much can you tell about the English soul by noting that the word breakfast really means  
「breaking」 the 「fast」 you』ve engaged in since your last bite the night before?    
Japanese         
Like Chinese, Japanese conversation is fairly easy, but the written language is  
complicated. In wartime, America turned out interpreters in Japanese and Chinese at a  
satisfactory rate by going straight for the spoken language and ignoring the written  
language completely. You may be tempted to do the same.    
Certainly you can prioritise the ability to speak and understand over the ability to  
read and write, but I urge you to undertake serious study of the written language and  
continue steadily. If speech is to be your 「hare,」 let writing at least be your 「tortoise.」    
Written Japanese is not as difficult as you might fear. Japanese uses several  
thousand characters borrowed from the Chinese, but it uses them in a different and more  
limited way that makes them easy to learn. The characters are used along with two  
syllabaries, sets of simple written symbols, each of which represents not one single letter  
but a complete syllable.    
Japanese has no tones to worry about, and Japanese grammar involves the learning  
of certain speech patterns more than changes in verbs, nouns, and adjectives.    
Japanese has a clarity missing from Chinese. Learn a Japanese word from your  
book or cassette and your Japanese friend will understand it at your first attempt to use it.    
The commercial advantages of learning Japanese are obvious and on the rise. But  
even if your Japanese never reaches a level of proficiency enabling you to do business in  
Japanese, your Japanese host and associates will appreciate your efforts. They, after all,  
had to learn English. You did not have to learn Japanese. Yet.         
Arabic         
Arabic is elusive, guttural, and rewarding. Arabic script, written from right to left, writes  
each letter differently depending upon whether it occurs at the beginning, the middle, or  
the end of a word. Learn it, however, and you』ll be welcome from the North Atlantic  
coast of Africa clear through the Middle East to the borders of Iran and Pakistan. Arabic  
is also the religious language studied by millions of Muslims around the world whose  
native languages are not Arabic. The Arab population of the United States is growing  
rapidly. You can hear Arabic on the streets and deal in Arabic in the shops of places like  
Dearborn, Michigan, where there is a substantial Arab population.    
 
Your investment in Arabic is likely to gain in value when Israel and the Arab states  
achieve a settlement allowing for commerce and development to replace a half century of  
open warfare.         
Hebrew         
Hebrew is one of the more difficult languages, and the numerical incentives for tackling  
it are not great because Hebrew is spoken only in Israel and in small communities of  
Israelis in America and other Western countries. Until recently the teaching of Hebrew  
was illegal in the Soviet Union, but classrooms are overflowing now across the country  
as Jews prepare to emigrate to Israel or assert their Jewishness inside the Soviet Union.  
Hebrew is spoken wherever Jews worship around the world, and there is a surge of  
interest in learning Hebrew among young Americans who were born Jewish even though  
they may not have had a strong Jewish upbringing.    
If you』re not Jewish and choose to learn Hebrew anyhow, you will set loose waves  
of appreciation among Jews grateful to outsiders willing to go to that much trouble.    
Once you learn the Hebrew alphabet, you』ll be in command of virtually the same  
alphabet used by Yiddish, a language based on fifteenth century low German that was  
spoken by millions of East European Jews before Hitler』s extermination and is still  
understood in a surprising number of places. It』s also the alphabet used by Ladino, the  
「Spanish of Cervantes」 that became the 「Yiddish」 of the Jews of Spanish origin who  
scattered throughout the eastern Mediterranean after the beginning of the Spanish  
Inquisition. There are few language thrills that can match that of an American who  
learned the Hebrew alphabet in Hebrew school looking at a printed page in a language he  
didn』t know existed (many Jews themselves are totally unaware of the existence of  
Ladino) and discovering he can read it and understand it with his high school Spanish!         
Greek         
Modern Greek has a grammar slightly less glorious than that of its ancient civilisation. In  
difficulty, Greek falls somewhere between French and Russian. Each verb has two forms  
and verbs change according to person, number, and tense. The future tense is almost as  
easy as it is in English – the word tha serving the role of our will. Adjectives agree with  
their nouns according to gender (three of them) and number.    
Greek enjoys a leftover prestige, not only from ancient times but from the not long  
vanished tradition of the scholar who prided himself on being at home in Latin and  
Ancient Greek. Every five minutes during your study of Greek you』ll be reminded of our  
debt to the Greek language. Zestos means 「hot」 (「zesty」), chronos means 「time」 or  
「year,」 「number」 is arithmo, when you want your cheque in a restaurant you ask for the  
logariazmo (as in 「logarithm」), the Greek word for 「clear」 describing weather is  
katharos (as in 「catharsis」), 「season」 is epohi (「epoch」), and so on.    
Greek may be the language of one small European country only, but there are  
thriving Greek communities throughout the Middle East, Egypt, and other parts of Africa,  
and the United States. Enterprising Greeks have carried the language around the world.         
Swedish, Danish, Norwegian    
      
The Scandinavian languages are lumped together because of their similarity and the  
reliability with which natives of one Scandinavian country can deal with the languages of  
the others. That similarity is something for you to know and enjoy, not something for you  
to mention to the Scandinavians themselves. They』re horrified when outsiders say, 「Gee,  
Swedish, Danish, and Norwegian are all alike!」 They prefer to dwell upon the  
differences. There was a popular movement in Norwegian early in the twentieth century  
to change the language for no apparent reason other than to make it less like Danish.    
If your aim is to communicate in all three countries, learn Norwegian first. It』s the  
linguistic centre of Scandinavia. A Dane can deal comfortably with Norwegian, but much  
less so with Swedish. A Swede can deal comfortably with Norwegian, but much less so  
with Danish. A Norwegian can deal comfortably with both Swedish and Danish.    
The Scandinavian languages are relatively easy for Americans to learn. They』re  
Germanic languages, related to English, but vastly easier to learn than German. The verbs  
don』t change for person and number, and only slightly for tense. The word order follows  
English obligingly most of the way. Like Dutch, the Scandinavian languages have two  
genders – common and neuter – and the definite article follows the noun and becomes  
one word. (For example, 「a pen」 in Norwegian is en penn, 「the pen」 is pennen.)    
Holland is said to be the non-English speaking country with the highest percentage  
of people fluent in English. The three Scandinavian countries are close behind. You may  
never need their language no matter where you go or who you deal with in Scandinavia,  
but Scandinavians are among the most appreciative people on earth if you know their  
language anyhow.         
Polish, Croatian, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian         
These western Slavic languages use the Roman alphabet. The eastern Slavic languages  
use the Cyrillic (sometimes mistakenly called the Russian) alphabet. Don』t suggest it  
after a few drinks in Warsaw, but Polish might be better off using the Cyrillic alphabet. A  
Polish sound resembling the sh combined with the following ch in push charlie is spelled  
szcz in Polish. That sound, which requires four letters in the Roman alphabet, needs only  
one in the Cyrillic! Romanising Slavic languages leads to orthographical madness. A  
newspaper reporter in a small Southern town went into his editor』s office and said,  
「There』s been an earthquake in the Polish city of Pszczyna.」 He showed the editor the  
story off the wire. After a momentary frown the editor looked up and said, 「Find out  
what the name of the place was before the earthquake!」    
Except for Polish, none of these languages has much bounce beyond its borders, but  
if your reason for wanting to learn them involves family, love, or business, that won』t  
matter. All Slavic languages are grammatically complex. Verbs change for reasons that  
leave even those who speak Romance languages weeping over their wine and wondering  
why. There are at least six noun cases in every Slavic language, sometimes seven.    
The big payoff in learning any of these Slavic languages is the automatic down  
payment you』re making on Russian itself. Russian will be a breeze if you already know  
another Slavic language, and conversely, the other Slavic languages will come more  
easily if you already know Russian.         
 
Serbian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Ukranian,    
Byelorussian         
Everything stated above about the western Slavic languages applies to these eastern  
Slavic languages with one exception – they use the Cyrillic alphabet, with slight  
variations from language to language.    
The similarities between Serbian and Croatian, the main languages of Yugoslavia,  
are so striking the languages are usually lumped together as Serbo-Croatian.    
If you know any two Slavic languages, you can make yourself understood in any of  
the other Slavic languages. That may be challenged by Slavic scholars, but it works well  
in real life between the western border of Poland and the Ural Mountains and from the  
arctic tip of Russia to the Black Sea beaches of Bulgaria.                        
Indonesian         
Indonesia is the world』s most populous Muslim nation. Consisting of hundreds of islands  
spread out over a South Pacific area the size of the United States, Indonesia is easily the  
largest country in the world about which the most other people in the world know the  
least. With enough mineral wealth in the ground to make it an economic superpower,  
Indonesia is still frequently confused with India or Polynesia.    
Indonesian is the easiest major language in the world for a foreigner to learn. It was  
called Pasar Malay (「Bazaar Malay」) by the colonial Dutch who looked upon the  
Indonesian language as a kind of baby talk for servants and merchants. When Indonesia  
won independence in 1948, the ruler, Sukarno, did his best to take that unstructured  
language and graft some sophisticated grammar onto it to make it more regimented and  
thus difficult. He failed.    
Indonesian still has nothing that will be regarded as grammar by anybody who』s  
done battle with Latin or Russian. There are suffixes and prefixes aplenty, neat and  
regular, that convert verbs into nouns and give verbs additional meanings and the like,  
but no inflections according to person, number, tense, aspect, or anything else.    
Indonesian uses the Roman alphabet and is delightfully easy to pronounce. If  
you』ve ever studied any other language, you』ll marvel at how quickly and clearly you』ll  
understand and be understood.    
Indonesian is closely related to Malayan, the language of Malaysia and Singapore,  
and gives you a head start in Tagalog, the major language of the Philippines.         
Hindi and Urdu         
The spoken languages of India and Pakistan, Hindi and Urdu, are so close that the true  
language lover is tempted to take the plunge even though both languages use different  
and, to us, unfamiliar scripts (Devanagari, and a mixture of Persian and Arabic). Though  
other languages abound on the Indian subcontinent, Hindi-Urdu united their respective    
 
nations and whoever jumps in (despite the current lack of good learning materials) will  
be able to communicate with a population second only to that of China.              
Hungarian, Finnish, Estonian         
Despite the grammatical complexity and the relatively small pool of native speakers, an  
occasional adventurer is drawn almost masochistically to the three Finno-Ugric  
languages. If you were the hated kid in ninth grade who stayed after algebra class to beg  
the teacher to introduce you to calculus, they might want to try one of these.    
Every word in all three languages is accented on the first syllable – every single  
word, names and all, giving those languages the sound of a pneumatic jackhammer  
breaking up a sidewalk. There are, in Finnish, fifteen noun cases in the singular and  
sixteen in the plural. Hungarian and Estonian aren』t far behind. And that』s the easy part!    
People whose language you choose to learn often ask polite questions about why  
you wanted to learn their language. Let on to a Finn, a Hungarian, or an Estonian that you  
know a little bit of their language and you will not merely be questioned. You』ll be cross  
examined!    
Swahili         
Swahili enjoyed a surge of support beginning in the late 1960』s among young American  
blacks who wanted to reconnect to their African roots. Anyone who pressed on and  
mastered Swahili would today speak a language spoken by fifty million people living in  
central and eastern Africa, including the nations of Kenya and Tanzania in which Swahili  
is the national language. Swahili is a Bantu language, and once you learn it you can  
expect easy going when you decide to learn Kiganda, Kikamba, Kikuyu, Kinyanja,  
Kichaga, Kiluba, Kishona, Kizulu, Kikongo, and Kiduala, all of which are spoken over  
smaller areas in Africa south of the Sahara.    
Swahili uses the Roman alphabet. The Say It In Swahili phrase book advises us not  
to be discouraged by words like kitakachonisahilishia, because Swahili grammar is  
mercifully regular and logical!         
English         
The mere fact that you』re reading these words right now calls for self congratulations. It  
means you』re fluent in the winner, the international language, the number one language  
of all time!    
When a Soviet plane approaches the airport in China, the pilot and the control tower  
don』t speak Russian to each other. They don』t speak Chinese. They speak English. If an  
Italian plane is about to land in another part of Italy, the Italian pilot and the Italian traffic  
control person also speak English.    
When the Israeli general and the Egyptian general met in Sinai in October 1973 to  
talk truce in the Yom Kippur War, they didn』t speak Hebrew. They didn』t speak Arabic.  
They spoke English.    
When Norwegian whaling ships put into the port of Capetown, South Africa, to hire  
Zulu seamen, the interviewing is not done in Norwegian or Zulu. It』s done in English.    
 
The parliaments of Sweden, Denmark, and Norway send delegates to a body called  
the Nordic Council. Their official meetings are conducted – at great expense in  
interpreters and simultaneous interpretation equipment – in Swedish, Danish and  
Norwegian. When the meetings end, however, and the delegates from the three  
neighbouring countries adjourn to the bar and the dining room, they all start speaking  
English with each other!    
Haven』t you noticed something odd about protestors you have seen on TV  
demonstrating in Lithuania, Estonia, Korea, Iraq, Mexico, and other countries where  
neither the protestors, the ones they』re protesting against, nor the local media speak  
native English? In addition to the signs and banners in their own languages, they always  
carry signs and banners in English. And for good reason. They want their message to  
reverberate around the world.    
On a map of Africa, Nigeria seems a tiny patch where the bulge of that gigantic  
continent meets the body. Inside that patch, however, live between 100 and 120 million  
people speaking 250 different languages, with names like Yoruba, Ibo, Hausa, Nupe, and  
Oyo. From their first day of school, the children of Nigeria are taught English. Without  
English, not only could Nigeria not talk to the world, Nigerians couldn』t even talk to each  
other.    
When a Nigerian educator, Aliu Babtunde Fafunwa, proposed in early 1991 that  
Nigerian children begin their education in their 250 respective mother tongues, the  
government newspaper itself wrote in an editorial, 「The least luxury we can afford in the  
last decade of the twentieth century is an idealistic experiment in linguistic nationalism  
which could cut our children off from the main current of human development.」 That』s  
hardly a hate filled denunciation of former colonial masters.    
Every attempt to launch an artificial international language has so far failed.  
Esperanto, Idiom Neutral, Kosmos, Monoglottica, Universalsprache, Neo-Latine,  
Vertparl, Mundolingue, Dil, Volapuk, even an international language based on the notes  
of the musical scale, all started out weak and gradually tapered off. My guess is they  
always will. You can no more 「vote」 a language into being the international language  
than you can vote warmth into a blizzard.    
Languages attain prominence something the way individuals and countries do,  
through all kinds of force, including war. There』s an added element in prominence,  
however. Brute force is not enough. The winning language must have a degree of  
acceptability to the losers.    
Russian emerged from World War II as a mighty language, but it failed to bluster  
beyond the bounds of the Communist empire. Russian even failed to inspire people to  
learn it inside their empire. Students in Hungary, Romania, and East Germany knew no  
more Russian after eight years of schooling than Americans know French after similar  
exposure.    
English, on the other hand, was welcomed. Africans and Asians may not have  
rejoiced at being forcibly incorporated into the British Empire, but they recognised that  
the English language, if learned by all, was a unifying tool that enabled different tribes  
who lived five miles apart to communicate for the first time, in a language brought down  
upon them from thousands of miles away.    
A wolf will lift his neck to let a larger wolf know that he accepts the other』s  
dominant role as leader. The entire world has lifted its neck to acknowledge English as    
 
the language of choice in the modern world. It wasn』t all military and commercial power,  
either. American movies, songs, comic strips, TV series, even T-shirts all helped make  
English the international language of the earth by acclaim.    
But only the shortsighted will consider the dominance of English reason to return  
foreign language materials to the bookstore and forget the whole thing. It』s precisely  
because the peoples of the world honour our language that we get so much more  
appreciation when we go out of our way to honour theirs.         


<<How to Learn Any Language>> 〔完〕

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